WCCC 1977

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The Second World Computer Chess Championship took place from August 7 to 9, 1977, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, under the auspices of the new founded ICCA. It was a four round swiss tournament with 16 participants. Chess 4.6 was the sole winner with 4 out of 4.

Final Standing

2nd World Computer Chess Championship 1977, Toronto CA [2] [3] [4] .

# Program CC R1 R2 R3 R4 P SOS SoDOS
1 Chess 4.6 US 13w1 6b1 2w1 4b1 4 9 9
2 Duchess US 3w1 7w1 1b0 6b1 3 11 7
3 Kaissa SU 2b0 16w1 5b1 11b1 3 7 4
4 Belle US 11w½ 12b1 8w1 1w0 9
5 CHAOS US 15w1 8b½ 3w0 12b1
6 Master GB 14b1 1w0 10b1 2w0 2 10½
7 Ostrich CA 9w1 2b0 11w½ 13b½ 2 8
8 Dark Horse SE 16b1 5w½ 4b0 9b½ 2 7
9 Wita CA 7b0 13b1 15w½ 8w½ 2 3
10 Elsa DE 12w½ 11b½ 6w0 15b1 2 6
11 Black Knight US 4b½ 10w½ 7b½ 3w0
12 Blitz 5 US 10b½ 4w0 14b1 5w0
13 BCP GB 1b0 9w0 16b1 7w½ 8 1
14 Chute 1.2 CA 6w0 15b½ 12w0 16b1 ½
15 Bs6676 NL 5b0 14w½ 9b½ 10w0 1 8
16 Tell CH 8w0 3b0 13w0 14w0 0 8 0


2nd World Computer Chess Championship 1977, Toronto CA [5]

Program CC Authors Hardware Language
BCP GB Don Beal CDC 6400 Fortran and Assembly
Belle US Ken Thompson, Joe Condon PDP-11 + Chess Hardware C
Black Knight US Fred Prouse, Kenn Sogge,
Gary Maltzen, Lonny Lebahn
UNIVAC 1110 Fortran
Blitz 5 US Robert Hyatt XDS Sigma 9 Fortran
Bs6676 NL Barend Swets IBM 370/168 Fortran
Chess 4.6 US Larry Atkin, David Slate, David Cahlander CDC Cyber 176 Assembly
CHAOS US Mike Alexander, Victor Berman, Ira Ruben,
Fred Swartz, William Toikka, Joe Winograd
Amdahl 470v/6 Fortran
Chute 1.2 CA Michael Valenti, Zvonko Vranesic Amdahl 470v/6 XPL
Dark Horse SE Ulf Rathsman CDC 6400 Fortran
Duchess US Eric Jensen, Tom Truscott, Bruce Wright IBM 370/165 PL/I and Assembly
Elsa DE Ludwig Zagler TR 440 Assembly
Kaissa SU Mikhail Donskoy, Vladimir Arlazarov,
Anatoly Uskov, Georgy Adelson-Velsky
IBM 370/168 Assembly
Master GB John Birmingham, Peter Kent IBM 370/168 PL/I
Ostrich CA Monty Newborn, George Arnold SuperNOVA Assembly
Tell CH Johann Joss DEC KL-10 Algol 60
Wita CA Tony Marsland Amdahl 470v/6 Algol W

Selected Games

Round 1, Duchess - Kaissa [6] , where Kaissa surprised with 34... Re8 [7]

[Event "WCCC 1977"]
[Site "Toronto, Canada"]
[Date "1977.08.07"]
[Round "1"]
[White "Duchess"]
[Black "Kaissa"]
[Result "1-0"]

1.e4 d5 2.exd5 Nf6 3.d4 Nxd5 4.Nf3 g6 5.Be2 Bg7 6.c4 Nb6 7.Nc3 O-O 8.Be3 Bg4
9.c5 Nd5 10.O-O e6 11.Qb3 b6 12.Nxd5 exd5 13.Bg5 Qd7 14.h3 Bf5 15.Qc3 Re8
16.Rfe1 Be4 17.Nd2 Qf5 18.Be3 Qe6 19.Nxe4 dxe4 20.cxb6 cxb6 21.Rec1 Nd7 22.Bg4
Qd5 23.Qc6 Nf6 24.Be2 Rad8 25.Qa4 Re7 26.Bb5 Qf5 27.Rc2 Nd5 28.Rac1 Bf6 29.Qb3
a5 30.g4 Qe6 31.Rc6 a4 32.Qxa4 Rd6 33.Rxd6 Qxd6 34.Qa8+ Re8 35.Qxe8+ Kg7 36.g5
Bd8 37.Bc4 Qe7 38.Qxe7 Nxe7 39.Bf4 Nf5 40.Bd5 Kf8 41.Rc8 Ke7 42.Rc4 Ng7 43.Bxe4
Ne6 44.Be3 Nc7 45.d5 Nb5 46.Bf3 Kd7 47.a4 Nd6 48.Rc6 Nf5 1-0

Game and short analyze on Lichess.org : [1]

Exhibition Game


Kaissa vs. Chess 4.6 exhibition game after the tournament, Mikhail Donskoy and Vladimir Arlazarov
in front, David Slate, David Cahlander and Larry Atkin behind [8] [9]

[Event "Exhibition game"]
[Site "Toronto, Canada"]
[Date "1977.08.09"]
[Round "1"]
[White "Kaissa"]
[Black "Chess 4.6"]
[Result "0-1"]

1.e4 Nc6 2.Nf3 e6 3.d4 d5 4.Bd3 dxe4 5.Bxe4 Bd7 6.O-O Nf6 7.Re1 Nxe4 8.Rxe4 Be7 9.c4 f5 
10.Re1 O-O 11.Nc3 f4 12.Qd3 Qe8 13.g3 fxg3 14.hxg3 Qf7 15.Bf4 g5 16.d5 exd5 17.Nxd5 gxf4 
18.Nxe7+ Nxe7 19.Qxd7 Ng6 20.Qxf7+ Rxf7 21.g4 Rd7 22.Rad1 Rad8 23.Rxd7 Rxd7 24.Kg2 Kg7 
25.Ng5 Rd2 26.Rb1 Rc2 27.b3 Ne5 28.Rh1 Rxa2 29.Rh4 Nd3 30.Nh3 Rb2 31.g5 Kg8 32.Nxf4 Rxf2+ 
33.Kg3 Rxf4 34.Rxf4 Nxf4 35.Kxf4 Kf7 36.b4 Ke6 37.Ke4 a6 38.Kf4 Kd6 39.Ke4 c5 40.bxc5+ 
Kxc5 41.Kd3 a5 42.Kc3 a4 43.Kd3 Kb4 44.Kc2 Kxc4 0-1 {resigned}

See also


Forum Posts

External Links

Nova episode 0509 The Mind Machines, March 22, 1978, Frequency Video,


  1. 1977 World Computer Chess Championship, Toronto, Canada, Footage excerpted from Nova episode 0509 The Mind Machines, 1978, The Computer History Museum David Levy: The crowd tonight is absolutely phenomenal, I've never seen a crowd like this before at a computer chess tournament and there's certainly about twice as many people here as ever go to watch the US Open Championship or the United States Closed Championship, even when Fischer was playing. I think that probably most of you are having a good laugh tonight and you're here out of curiosity, but in a few years time you'll be here because these programs are playing better then the masters and grand masters in the US championship.
  2. ICGA Tournament site
  3. 2nd World Computer Chess Championship 1977 CSVN tournament site
  4. World Computer Chess Championship - 2nd WCCC - 1977 Toronto by Mark Weeks
  5. Peter Jennings (1978). The Second World Computer Chess Championships - Where KAISSA Founders on a Bug and CHESS 4.6 Conquers All. BYTE, Vol. 3, No. 1
  6. Toronto 1977 - Chess - Round 1 - Game 1 (ICGA Tournaments)
  7. Looking for a position by Aaron Tay, CCC, December 02, 2001
  8. Personal Computing, Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 112, Photo courtesy of D'Arcy Glionna, of Daniels and Glionna, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, hosted by the Internet Archive
  9. Game notation from David Levy, Monroe Newborn (1982, 1983). All About Chess and Computers. Springer, More Chess and Computers, Computer Chess Tournaments

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