WCCC 1974

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The First World Computer Chess Championship took place from August 5 to August 8, 1974, in Hotel Birger-Jarl, Stockholm, Sweden under the auspices of IFIP. It was a four round swiss tournament with 13 participants. Kaissa was the sole winner with 4 out of 4.

Final Standing

1st World Computer Chess Championship 1974, Stockholm SE [2]

# Program CC R1 R2 R3 R4 P SOS SoDOS G
1 Kaissa SU 7w1 5b1 2w1 6b1 4 9 9 4
2 CHAOS US 10b1 3w1 1b0 9w1 3 10½ 4
3 Chess 4.0 US 4w1 2b0 6w1 5b1 3 10 7 4
4 Ribbit CA 3b0 10w1 13b1 8w1 3 4
5 Tech 2 US 8b1 1w0 7b1 3w0 2 11 4 4
6 Ostrich US 11b1 9w1 3b0 1w0 2 10½ 4
7 Frantz AT 1b0 13w1 5w0 12b1 2 8 2 4
8 Master [3] GB 5w0 12b1 11w1 4b0 2 4
9 Beal GB bye1 6b0 12w1 2b0 2 6 1 3
10 Freedom NO 2w0 4b0 bye1 11w½ ¾ 3
11 Tell CH 6w0 bye1 8b0 10b½ ¾ 3
12 A16chs GB 13b1 8w0 9b0 17w0 1 7 1 4
13 Papa HU 12w0 7b0 4w0 bye1 1 6 0 3


Program CC Authors Hardware Language
A16chs GB Robert Prinsen GCS-Alpha16 unknown
Beal GB Don Beal CDC 6600 Fortran and Assembly
CHAOS US Mike Alexander, Victor Berman, Ira Ruben,
Fred Swartz, William Toikka, Joe Winograd
UNIVAC 1108 Fortran
Chess 4.0 US Larry Atkin, David Slate CDC 6600 Assembly
Frantz AT Fritz Königshofer, Gerhard Wolf UNIVAC 494 Fortran
Freedom NO Nils Barricelli CDC Cyber 74 unknown
Kaissa SU Mikhail Donskoy, Vladimir Arlazarov,
Anatoly Uskov, Georgy Adelson-Velsky
ICL 4-70 Assembly
Master GB Alex Bell, Peter Kent,
John Birmingham, John Waldron
IBM 360/195 PL/I
Ostrich US Monty Newborn, George Arnold Nova 840 Assembly
Papa HU George Rajna, B. Almasi unknown unknown
Ribbit CA Gary Calnek, Russell Crook,
Ron Hansen, Jim Parry
Honeywell 66/60 Fortran
Tech 2 US Alan Baisley PDP-10 Assembly
Tell CH Johann Joss HP 2115A Algol 60

Photos & Games

Photos courtesy of Monroe Newborn [4] .

Chess 4.0 - Ribbit

3-1 and 3-3.Chess 4.0 vs RIBBIT.Hansen Parry Slate.WCCC 1.Stockholm.1974.102645354.NEWBORN.lg.jpg

Hansen, Perry and Slate, Chess 4.0 vs Ribbit

[Event "WCCC 1974"]
[Site "Stockholm, Sweden"]
[Date "1974.08.05"]
[Round "1"]
[White "Chess 4.0"]
[Black "Ribbit"]
[Result "1-0"]

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 a6 6.Be2 e5 7.Nb3 Nc6 8.O-O Be7
9.Bg5 Be6 10.Qd2 O-O 11.Rad1 Rc8 12.Bxf6 gxf6 13.Kh1 Qd7 14.Nd5 Bd8 15.Qe3 f5
16.Qg3+ Kh8 17.f3 Rg8 18.Qf2 fxe4 19.fxe4 Rg7 20.c4 Qe8 21.Ne3 Qd7 22.Nc5 Qe7
23.Nxe6 Qxe6 24.Nf5 Rg8 25.Nxd6 Rc7 26.Nxf7+ Kg7 27.Qg3+ Qg6 28.Qxg6+ hxg6
29.Nxd8 Nxd8 30.Rd6 Nf7 31.Rd5 Rf8 32.c5 Rc6 33.Rd7 Rxc5 34.Rxb7 a5 35.b3 Rc6
36.Ra7 Rf6 37.Rxf6 Kxf6 38.Ra6+ Kg7 39.Rxa5 1-0

Game and short analyze on Lichess.org : [1]

Tech 2 - Kaissa

Kaissa Baisley Donskoy.jpg

Alan Baisley (left) faces Mikhail Donskoy, Round 2 Tech vs Kaissa

[Event "WCCC 1974"]
[Site "Stockholm, Sweden"]
[Date "1974.08.06"]
[Round "2"]
[White "Tech 2"]
[Black "Kaissa"]
[Result "0-1"]

1.e4 d5 2.exd5 Nf6 3.Bb5+ Bd7 4.Bc4 Bg4 5.f3 Bc8 6.Nc3 Nbd7 7.Ne4 Ne5 8.Nxf6+ exf6
9.Qe2 Qe7 10.Bb5+ c6 11.dxc6 bxc6 12.Ba4 Ba6 13.Qe4 O-O-O 14.Ne2 Bxe2 15.Kxe2 Qd7
16.d3 Re8 17.Be3 Bd6 18.c3 Bb8 19.Bc2 Ng6 20.Qb4 Nf4+ 21.Kf2 Rxe3 22.Kxe3 Nd5+
23.Ke2 Nxb4 24.cxb4 Qd4 25.Rab1 Re8+ 26.Kf1 Qe3 27.d4 Qe2+ 28.Kg1 Qxc2 29.Kf1 Qxb1+
30.Kf2 Qxb2+ 31.Kf1 Qe2+ 32.Kg1 Qd1+ 33.Kf2 Re2# 0-1

Game and short analyze on Lichess.org : [2]

CHAOS - Chess 4.0

3-1 and 3-3.Chess 4.0 vs Chaos.Slate Swartz Rubin.WCCC 1.Stockholm.1974.102645355.NEWBORN.lg.jpg

Slate, Swartz, and Berman, CHAOS vs. Chess 4.0 [5]

[Event "WCCC 1974"]
[Site "Stockholm, Sweden"]
[Date "1974.08.06"]
[Round "2"]
[White "CHAOS"]
[Black "Chess 4.0"]
[Result "1-0"]

1.d4 d5 2.c4 dxc4 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.e3 e6 5.Bxc4 c5 6.Qe2 a6 7.O-O b5 8.Bb3 Bb7
9.Rd1 Nbd7 10.Nc3 Bd6 11.e4 cxd4 12.Nxd4 Qb8 13.g3 b4 14.Na4 Bxe4 15.f3 Bg6
16.Nxe6 fxe6 17.Qxe6+ Be7 18.Re1 Qd8 19.Bf4 Kf8 20.Rad1 Ra7 21.Rc1 Ng8 22.Rcd1 a5
23.Bd6 Bxd6 24.Qxd6+ Ne7 25.Nc5 Bf5 26.g4 Qe8 27.Ba4 b3 28.gxf5 bxa2 29.Bxd7 a1=Q
30.Rxa1 Ra6 31.Nxa6 Qd8 32.Kf2 Kf7 33.Qe6+ Kf8 34.Qxe7+ Qxe7 35.Rxe7 Kxe7 36.Nc5 Rb8
37.Rxa5 Rxb2+ 38.Kg3 g6 39.fxg6 hxg6 40.Ra6 Rc2 41.Re6+ Kf8 42.Re5 Rc1 43.Rg5 Kf7
44.Be6+ Kf6 45.h4 Rxc5 46.Rxc5 Kxe6 47.Rg5 Kf6 48.Kg4 Kf7 49.Rc5 Ke6 50.Kg5 Kd6
51.Ra5 Kc6 52.f4 Kb6 53.Ra1 Kc5 54.Rd1 Kb4 55.Kxg6 Kc3 56.Rd8 Kb4 57.Rc8 Kb5 58.h5
Kb6 59.Rc1 Kb5 60.h6 Ka4 61.Rb1 Ka3 62.f5 Ka2 63.Rb8 Ka3 64.f6 Ka4 65.Rb7 Ka5
66.Rb8 Ka4 67.Rb1 Ka3 68.Rb7 Ka4 69.Rb8 Ka5 70.Kg7 Ka4 71.Rb7 Ka5 72.Rb2 Ka4
73.Rb8 Ka5 74.Kg8 Ka4 75.h7 Ka5 76.h8=Q Ka4 77.Qh4+ Ka5 78.Qb4+ Ka6 79.Qa4# 1-0

Game and short analyze on Lichess.org : [3]


from KAISSA by Bill Wall [6]

In August 1974 the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) held the first large-scale international chess tournament for chess computers. The event was held in Stockholm and lasted 4 rounds and 4 days. The tournament director was International Master David Levy. Kaissa won the first World Computer Chess Championship in Stockholm. Thirteen computers from eight nations participated in the first world computer chess championship. Kaissa had the largest book of stored openings (10,000 positions) than any other competing program. Kaissa could not run on a Stackholm ICL machine because of the special Soviet operating system, so it ran on a machine in Moscow via a telephone link. Kaissa played Ostrich in the last round. A win for Ostrich would have given Ostrich a tie for first place. Ostrich missed two winning moves (one was a force mate in 6 moves) and lost the game. The forced mate by Ostrich involved a piece sacrifice which the program was unable to make. In round 1, Kaissa mated Frantz in 34 moves. In round 2, Kaissa defeated Tech II in 33 moves (missing a mate in 1). In round 3, Kaissa mated CHAOS in 36 moves. In round 4, Kaissa mated Ostrich in 67 moves. Earlier, Kaissa missed a forced perpetual check. Kaissa defeated 3 American entries and 1 Canadian entry to become world champion. After the tournament, Kaissa and Chess 4.0 played in an exhibition game to determine which program was stronger. The game was adjudicated a draw after 65 moves in a rook vs rook and knight pawnless endgame. Chess 4.0 had missed a winning move earlier.

See also


Appendix I. The First World Computer Chess Championship
  • Jean E. Hayes, David Levy (1976). The world computer chess championship, Stockholm 1974. University Press (Edinburgh) ISBN 0852242859

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