Ira L. Ruben,
an American computer scientist and former chess programmer. While affiliated with Sperry Univac in the 70s , he was co-author of the chess program CHAOS, along with Fred Swartz, Mike Alexander, Victor Berman, William Toikka, and Joe Winograd and later Mark Hersey and Jack O’Keefe . CHAOS was one of the strongest programs of the 70s and early 80s, using an unique, knowledge based and selective best-first, iterative widening approach, keeping the search tree in memory . Short after the WCCC 1980 in Linz and the playoff for the title versus Belle, Ira Ruben left the CHAOS team to work for Apple Inc..
- Computer Chess Newsletter, Issue 2 1977 by Douglas Penrod, Courtesy of Peter Jennings, pdf from The Computer History Museum
- pp. 52, Table I. History of the ACM Tournaments from Ben Mittman, Monroe Newborn (1980). Computer chess at ACM 79: the tournament and the man vs. man and machine match. Communications of the ACM, Vol. 23, Issue 1, pdf from The Computer History Museum
- The Eleventh ACM's North American Computer Chess Championship as pdf reprint from The Computer History Museum
- Photo courtesy Joe Winograd