an American computer scientist, currently doing freelance custom programming. In the early part of his career, he worked on the design and development of the kernel of operating systems, as well as computer chess. Joe Winograd received his B.S. from Case Institute of Technology (now Case Western Reserve University), where he began his efforts in Artificial Intelligence. He then went on to study Computer Science (continuing the study of Artificial Intelligence) at Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pennsylvania. He worked for RCA and Sperry Univac (Unisys), and later on, he worked at Artificial Intelligence Corporation in Waltham, MA on natural language processing and expert systems.
While working at Sperry Univac in the early 70s, he became team member of the early chess program CHAOS  , along with Fred Swartz, Victor Berman, Ira Ruben and William Toikka (before the program became affiliated with the Computing Center of the University of Michigan, where some fluctuation of the CHAOS team occurred ).