Kasparov versus Deep Blue 1997

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Kasparov versus Deep Blue 1997,
the rematch between Garry Kasparov and Deep Blue, agreed after the Kasparov versus Deep Blue 1996 match won by Kasparov with 4–2. The rematch took place in New York City, New York, May 3-11, 1997, and to a big surprise for most spectators Deep Blue won the rematch by 3½-2½ [2]. Despite Kasparov's win of game 1 in a great style, he did not recover after the shock by Deep Blues' play in game 2, when Kasparov resigned a possibly drawn position after Deep Blue's 45. Ra6 [3] [4]. In the final decisive game 6, Kasparov played 7...h6 in the Caro-Kann knowing that it could provoke white to sacrifice a piece, which is very strong, but expected 7... Ne4, assuming h6 was not in Deep Blue's opening book [5]. With hindsight the match was a huge advertisement and media hype for IBM rather than a "scientific" prove of machines supremacy versus humans in chess. Kasparov accused IBM of cheating and demanded a rematch [6], but IBM declined and retired Deep Blue. It never competed again.

The Machine

In 2013, Donmar Warehouse announced a new international collaboration with Manchester International Festival and Park Avenue Armory, New York. To be performed in Manchester, July, 10-21 [7], and New York City, September 4-18 [8], Josie Rourke directs award-winning playwright Matt Charman’s play [9], THE MACHINE [10].

Kenneth Lee as FengHsiung Hsu in The Machine Photo by Helen Maybanks 7.jpg

Kenneth Lee [11] as Feng-hsiung Hsu [12]


Hadley Fraser as Garry Kasparov [13] [14]

In 1997, Garry Kasparov, the world’s greatest chess player, arrived in New York City for the biggest match of his life. His opponent wasn’t a fellow Grandmaster but a faceless super-computer, Deep Blue, built by tech-giant IBM in a bid to raise its profile and its stock price. An international celebrity and the undisputed master of his art, Kasparov came to America for freedom and glory. What he didn’t expect to confront was the lifelong dedication of another man, Deep Blue’s wunderkind inventor Doctor Hsu. Both geniuses, they staked their reputation on the tournament. What followed was one of the most compelling stories of our time [15] [16].


View the 12 games from 1996 and 1997 with eval on Lichess.org

Game 1

[Event "IBM Kasparov vs. Deep Blue Rematch"]
[Site "New York, NY USA"]
[Date "1997.05.03"]
[Round "1"]
[White "Kasparov, Garry"]
[Black "Deep Blue"]
[Result "1-0"]

1.Nf3 d5 2.g3 Bg4 3.b3 Nd7 4.Bb2 e6 5.Bg2 Ngf6 6.O-O c6 7.d3 Bd6
8.Nbd2 O-O 9.h3 Bh5 10.e3 h6 11.Qe1 Qa5 12.a3 Bc7 13.Nh4 g5
14.Nhf3 e5 15.e4 Rfe8 16.Nh2 Qb6 17.Qc1 a5 18.Re1 Bd6 19.Ndf1 dxe4
20.dxe4 Bc5 21.Ne3 Rad8 22.Nhf1 g4 23.hxg4 Nxg4 24.f3 Nxe3
25.Nxe3 Be7 26.Kh1 Bg5 27.Re2 a4 28.b4 f5 29.exf5 e4 30.f4 Bxe2
31.fxg5 Ne5 32.g6 Bf3 33.Bc3 Qb5 34.Qf1 Qxf1+ 35.Rxf1 h5 36.Kg1 Kf8
37.Bh3 b5 38.Kf2 Kg7 39.g4 Kh6 40.Rg1 hxg4 41.Bxg4 Bxg4
42.Nxg4+ Nxg4+ 43.Rxg4 Rd5 44.f6 Rd1 45.g7 1-0

Game 2

[Event "IBM Kasparov vs. Deep Blue Rematch"]
[Site "New York, NY USA"]
[Date "1997.05.04"]
[Round "2"]
[White "Deep Blue"]
[Black "Kasparov, Garry"]
[Result "1-0"]

1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 a6 4.Ba4 Nf6 5.O-O Be7 6.Re1 b5 7.Bb3 d6 
8.c3 O-O 9.h3 h6 10.d4 Re8 11.Nbd2 Bf8 12.Nf1 Bd7 13.Ng3 Na5 14.Bc2 c5
15.b3 Nc6 16.d5 Ne7 17.Be3 Ng6 18.Qd2 Nh7 19.a4 Nh4 20.Nxh4 Qxh4 
21.Qe2 Qd8 22.b4 Qc7 23.Rec1 c4 24.Ra3 Rec8 25.Rca1 Qd8 26.f4 Nf6
27.fxe5 dxe5 28.Qf1 Ne8 29.Qf2 Nd6 30.Bb6 Qe8 31.R3a2 Be7 32.Bc5 Bf8
33.Nf5 Bxf5 34.exf5 f6 35.Bxd6 Bxd6 36.axb5 axb5 37.Be4 Rxa2 
38.Qxa2 Qd7 39.Qa7 Rc7 40.Qb6 Rb7 41.Ra8+ Kf7 42.Qa6 Qc7 43.Qc6 Qb6+
44.Kf1 Rb8 45.Ra6 1-0

Game 3

[Event "IBM Kasparov vs. Deep Blue Rematch"]
[Site "New York, NY USA"]
[Date "1997.05.06"]
[Round "3"]
[White "Kasparov, Garry"]
[Black "Deep Blue"]
[Result "1/2-1/2"]

1.d3 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.c4 Nf6 4.a3 d6 5.Nc3 Be7 6.g3 O-O 7.Bg2 Be6
8.O-O Qd7 9.Ng5 Bf5 10.e4 Bg4 11.f3 Bh5 12.Nh3 Nd4 13.Nf2 h6 14.Be3 c5
15.b4 b6 16.Rb1 Kh8 17.Rb2 a6 18.bxc5 bxc5 19.Bh3 Qc7 20.Bg4 Bg6
21.f4 exf4 22.gxf4 Qa5 23.Bd2 Qxa3 24.Ra2 Qb3 25.f5 Qxd1 26.Bxd1 Bh7
27.Nh3 Rfb8 28.Nf4 Bd8 29.Nfd5 Nc6 30.Bf4 Ne5 31.Ba4 Nxd5 32.Nxd5 a5
33.Bb5 Ra7 34.Kg2 g5 35.Bxe5+ dxe5 36.f6 Bg6 37.h4 gxh4 38.Kh3 Kg8
39.Kxh4 Kh7 40.Kg4 Bc7 41.Nxc7 Rxc7 42.Rxa5 Rd8 43.Rf3 Kh8 44.Kh4 Kg8
45.Ra3 Kh8 46.Ra6 Kh7 47.Ra3 Kh8 48.Ra6 1/2-1/2

Game 4

[Event "IBM Kasparov vs. Deep Blue Rematch"]
[Site "New York, NY USA"]
[Date "1997.05.07"]
[Round "4"]
[White "Deep Blue"]
[Black "Kasparov, Garry"]
[Result "1/2-1/2"]

1.e4 c6 2.d4 d6 3.Nf3 Nf6 4.Nc3 Bg4 5.h3 Bh5 6.Bd3 e6 7.Qe2 d5
8.Bg5 Be7 9.e5 Nfd7 10.Bxe7 Qxe7 11.g4 Bg6 12.Bxg6 hxg6 13.h4 Na6
14.O-O-O O-O-O 15.Rdg1 Nc7 16.Kb1 f6 17.exf6 Qxf6 18.Rg3 Rde8
19.Re1 Rhf8 20.Nd1 e5 21.dxe5 Qf4 22.a3 Ne6 23.Nc3 Ndc5 24.b4 Nd7
25.Qd3 Qf7 26.b5 Ndc5 27.Qe3 Qf4 28.bxc6 bxc6 29.Rd1 Kc7 30.Ka1 Qxe3
31.fxe3 Rf7 32.Rh3 Ref8 33.Nd4 Rf2 34.Rb1 Rg2 35.Nce2 Rxg4 36.Nxe6+ Nxe6
37.Nd4 Nxd4 38.exd4 Rxd4 39.Rg1 Rc4 40.Rxg6 Rxc2 41.Rxg7+ Kb6
42.Rb3+ Kc5 43.Rxa7 Rf1+ 44.Rb1 Rff2 45.Rb4 Rc1+ 46.Rb1 Rcc2 47.Rb4 Rc1+
48.Rb1 Rxb1+ 49.Kxb1 Re2 50.Re7 Rh2 51.Rh7 Kc4 52.Rc7 c5 53.e6 Rxh4
54.e7 Re4 55.a4 Kb3 56.Kc1 1/2-1/2

Game 5

[Event "IBM Kasparov vs. Deep Blue Rematch"]
[Site "New York, NY USA"]
[Date "1997.05.10"]
[Round "5"]
[White "Kasparov, Garry"]
[Black "Deep Blue"]
[Result "1/2-1/2"]

1.Nf3 d5 2.g3 Bg4 3.Bg2 Nd7 4.h3 Bxf3 5.Bxf3 c6 6.d3 e6 7.e4 Ne5
8.Bg2 dxe4 9.Bxe4 Nf6 10.Bg2 Bb4+ 11.Nd2 h5 12.Qe2 Qc7 13.c3 Be7
14.d4 Ng6 15.h4 e5 16.Nf3 exd4 17.Nxd4 O-O-O 18.Bg5 Ng4 19.O-O-O Rhe8
20.Qc2 Kb8 21.Kb1 Bxg5 22.hxg5 N6e5 23.Rhe1 c5 24.Nf3 Rxd1+ 25.Rxd1 Nc4
26.Qa4 Rd8 27.Re1 Nb6 28.Qc2 Qd6 29.c4 Qg6 30.Qxg6 fxg6 31.b3 Nxf2
32.Re6 Kc7 33.Rxg6 Rd7 34.Nh4 Nc8 35.Bd5 Nd6 36.Re6 Nb5 37.cxb5 Rxd5
38.Rg6 Rd7 39.Nf5 Ne4 40.Nxg7 Rd1+ 41.Kc2 Rd2+ 42.Kc1 Rxa2 43.Nxh5 Nd2
44.Nf4 Nxb3+ 45.Kb1 Rd2 46.Re6 c4 47.Re3 Kb6 48.g6 Kxb5 49.g7 Kb4 1/2-1/2

Game 6

[Event "IBM Kasparov vs. Deep Blue Rematch"]
[Site "New York, NY USA"]
[Date "1997.05.11"]
[Round "6"]
[White "Deep Blue"]
[Black "Kasparov, Garry"]
[Result "1-0"]

1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 dxe4 4.Nxe4 Nd7 5.Ng5 Ngf6 6.Bd3 e6 7.N1f3 h6
8.Nxe6 Qe7 9.O-O fxe6 10.Bg6+ Kd8 11.Bf4 b5 12.a4 Bb7 13.Re1 Nd5
14.Bg3 Kc8 15.axb5 cxb5 16.Qd3 Bc6 17.Bf5 exf5 18.Rxe7 Bxe7 19.c4 1-0

See also

Selected Publications


AAAI Workshop

  1. Richard Korf (1997). Does Deep Blue use AI? Deep Blue versus Kasparov, AAAI Workshop, pdf
  2. Robert Levinson, Jeff Wilkinson (1997). Deep Blue is Still an Infant. Deep Blue versus Kasparov, AAAI Workshop
  3. Dennis DeCoste (1997). The Future of Chess-Playing Technologies and the Significance of Kasparov Versus deep Blue. Deep Blue versus Kasparov, AAAI Workshop
  4. Selmer Bringsjord, Adam Lally (1997). Chess Isn't Tough Enough: Better Games for Mind-Machine Competition. Deep Blue versus Kasparov, AAAI Workshop, pdf
  5. Fernand Gobet (1997). Can Deep Blue™ make us happy? Reflections on human and artificial expertise. Deep Blue versus Kasparov, AAAI Workshop, pdf
  6. Tony Marsland (1997). The Anatomy of Chess Programs. Deep Blue versus Kasparov, AAAI Workshop, pdf (95)
  7. Carl W. Turner (1997). Attributing Intelligence to Humans and Machines: Between the Devil and the Deep Blue, See? Deep Blue versus Kasparov, AAAI Workshop, pdf
  8. Tony Marsland, Yngvi Björnsson. (1997). From MiniMax to Manhattan. Deep Blue versus Kasparov, AAAI Workshop, pdf
  9. Amol Dattatraya Mali, Amitabha Mukerjee (1997). Modularity Assumptions in Situated Agency. Deep Blue versus Kasparov, AAAI Workshop
  10. Cyrus F. Nournai (1997). Multiagent Chess Games. Deep Blue versus Kasparov, AAAI Workshop, pdf
  11. Kenneth M. Ford, Patrick J. Hayes (1997). What's Wrong With Hal? Deep Blue versus Kasparov, AAAI Workshop, pdf
  12. Franz-Günter Winkler, Johannes Fürnkranz (1997). On Effort in AI Research: A Description Along Two Dimensions. Deep Blue versus Kasparov, AAAI Workshop
  13. David Heath, Derek Allum (1997). The Historical Development of Computer Chess and its Impact on Artificial Intelligence. Deep Blue versus Kasparov, AAAI Workshop, pdf

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Forum Posts


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External Links

Deep Blue versus Kasparov, 1997, Game 6 - Wikipedia



  1. Garry Kasparov just resigned Game 2, Capture from the Endgame: Challenging the Master Video @ 0:43, © 2005 The Computer History Museum
  2. IBM Research | Kasparov vs. Deep Blue: The Rematch - IBM
  3. Komodo 8: Deep Blue revisited (part one) by Albert Silver, ChessBase News, December 26, 2014
  4. Kasparov-Deep Thought 1997 (second game) by Franco Kanizsa, CCC, July 16, 2017
  5. Kasparov says he played 7...h6 knowing that it could "provoke white to sacrifice a piece, which is very strong..., But machines don't sacrifice a piece for a pawn without having a concrete outcome in sight, so I expected that the computer would go back on e4 because this move was not in the special database prepared by a grandmaster team that worked with Deep Blue. And to my horror Deep Blue immediately took on e6, which means that the move was already put in."
    What is Garry up to? by Macauley Peterson, ChessBase News, January 24, 2018
  6. The Week in Chess Magazine: Open Letter from Feng-hsiung Hsu, January 10, 2000
  7. The Machine Starring Hadley Fraser and Francesca AnnisWritten by Matt Charman, directed by Josie Rourke
  8. The Machine : Program & Events : Park Avenue Armory
  9. Manchester International Festival 2013 | Q&A Matt Charman | The Guardian, May 24, 2013
  10. The Machine by Harvey Williamson, Hiarcs Forum, May 11, 2013
  11. Kenneth Lee from Arkansas Repertory Theatre
  12. Photo by Helen Maybanks, The Machine - New York - Donmar Warehouse
  13. Photo by Helen Maybanks, The Machine - New York - Donmar Warehouse
  14. Re: The Machine by Harvey Williamson, Hiarcs Forum, July 22, 2013
  15. The Machine - New York - Donmar Warehouse
  16. The Machine
  17. AAAI Workshop: Deep Blue Versus Kasparov: The Significance for Artificial Intelligence 1997
  18. "Deep Blue" inspires deep thinking about artificial intelligence by computer scientist by Robert Irion, May 5, 1997
  19. New CC book: Beyond Deep Blue by Steven Edwards, CCC, November 11, 2011
  20. Garry Kasparov: Don't fear intelligent machines. Work with them | TED Talk, April 2017
  21. The Day the Machines Took Over by Adam Thierer, Medium, May 11, 2017
  22. Kasparov on Deep Learning in chess by Frederic Friedel, ChessBase News, December 13, 2017
  23. Techmate by Garry Kasparov, February 22, 1999, Forbes.com
  24. Strategic Intensity - A Conversation with World Chess Champion Garry Kasparov by Diane L. Coutu, Harvard Business Review, April 2005
  25. 20 years ago, a computer first beat a chess world champion - 1996-1997 The Kasparov-Deep Blue chess matches by Alex Q. Arbuckle, February 10, 2016
  26. 20 Years after Deep Blue: How AI Has Advanced Since Conquering Chess by Larry Greenemeier, Scientific American, June 2, 2017
  27. "Techmate" by Garry Kasparov by José Antônio Fabiano Mendes, CCC, May 02, 2000
  28. Komodo 8: Deep Blue revisited (1/2) by Graham Banks, CCC, December 27, 2014
  29. Garry Kasparov, Mig Greengard (2017). Deep Thinking: Where Machine Intelligence Ends and Human Creativity Begins. PublicAffairs or John Murray
  30. Scientific American article on Computer Chess by Mark Lefler, CCC, June 03, 2017
  31. Anjelina Belakovskaia from Wikipedia
  32. Game Over - Kasparov and the machine : ADCHESS : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive

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