Jack Good
Irving John (Jack) Good, (December 9, 1916  April 5, 2009)
a British statistician and computer pioneer. During World War II, Good worked with Alan Turing and Conel Hugh O'Donel Alexander at Bletchley Park, with Donald Michie and Shaun Wylie et al. in the section Newmanry headed by Max Newman, contributing to crack the German Lorenz cipher ^{[2]} ^{[3]}. After the war he worked at the University of Manchester and Atlas Computer Laboratory, and had a variety of defense, consulting and academic positions, until he came to the United States in 1967, becoming a University Distinguished Professor at Virginia Tech. In 1965 he originated the concept of an intelligence explosion, now known as technological singularity ^{[4]}, which anticipates the eventual advent of superhuman intelligence ^{[5]}. Jack Good died on April 5, 2009, aged 92 ^{[6]}.
Contents
Photos
I. J. Good, nearest to camera  Cheltenham Chronicle. Final of the
National Chess Club championship, a telephone match. August 20, 1955 ^{[7]}
FiveYear Plan
Jack Good was a strong chess player, and he published several papers related to computer chess in Michie's Machine Intelligence series ^{[8]}, most notably his FiveYear Plan for Automatic Chess in 1968 ^{[9]}, excerpts reprinted in David Levy's Computer Chess Compendium, covering Material, Quiescence, Turbulence, and Agitation ^{[10]}.
TheoremProving
Theoremproving was mentioned in the FiveYear Plan for Automatic Chess ^{[11]}:
Theoremproving resembles chess Playing in that we have an objective and an analysis tree, or graph, but differs in that a superficial expected payoff replaces the iterated minimax. The minimax idea can come in if we are trying to prove a theorem and we imagine that we have an opponent who wishes to disprove it. The value of our game is 1 if the theorem is true and — 1 if it is false. In the proof trees described in the paper by Dr D. C. Cooper ^{[12]} the 'and's correspond to moves of the opponent, since we must allow for both branches, whereas the `or's correspond to our own moves. The minimax (strictly maximin) value of the tree tells us whether the theorem is true, and, if we allow for superficial probabilities at the endpoints of the tree, the minimax value is the superficial probability of the theorem.
Quotes
Jack Good
by Jack Good, 1998 ^{[13]}:
In letters to Turing, on September 16 and October 3, 1948, I mentioned the idea of resonance circuits in the brain; especially as a method for noticing analogies... In the postscript I discussed chessplaying machines, which he and I had discussed in 1941, and gave a reasonable definition of a forced variation. I took for granted the need to distinguish between quiescent and nonquiescent positions. Shannon's paper on chess appeared in 1950.
In a letter to F C Williams in July 1951 I said "A facetious question is whether it is intended to display chess positions on the monitoring tubes". Of course today it is no longer at all facetious.
David Levy
David Levy in Computer Chess Compendium ^{[14]}:
Perhaps nonlinear evaluation functions will become popular at some future date, in which case some of Good's ideas will come into their own.
The Times
Excerpt from the Obituary, The Times ^{[15]}
To statisticians, Good is one of the founding fathers of Bayesian statistics, an approach to the discipline based on work of Thomas Bayes in 1764. In it one forms a view of the phenomenon under study, quantifying one's uncertainty in terms of a probability distribution (the prior distribution). One then draws a sample, obtaining data, and uses the data and Bayes's theorem to update this prior uncertainty to give a new distribution, the posterior distribution. This approach  the Bayesian paradigm, as it is now called  was little used before Good's work but was given an important boost by his 1950 book and his extensive subsequent writings, and is firmly established today. Good's other interests included artificial intelligence  in particular, training computers to play chess and philosophy.
HAL 9000
Marvin Minsky and Jack Good were adviser of the 1968 Arthur C. Clarke and Stanley Kubrick film 2001: A Space Odyssey, concerning Selfreplicating machine and HAL 9000, the Heuristically programmed ALgorithmic computer, and were referred to both in the movie and the book ^{[16]} ^{[17]}.
From Russia with Love
In 1991, Jack Good analyzed the famous position shown in the film From Russia with Love, Kronsteen vs. MacAdams ^{[18]}, with the motive of the position was taken from Spassky versus Bronstein 1960 ^{[19]}. The difference is that MacAdams had 22...Ne6. ^{[20]}^{[21]}
Kronsteen  MacAdams  Spassky  Bronstein  

 
r3rnk1/ppp1qNp1/7p/4b3/5Q2/1B6/PP4PP/5RK1 w   0 1  r3rnk1/ppp1qNp1/7p/2P1b3/3P1Q2/1B6/PP4PP/5RK1 w   0 22 
[Event "URSch"] [Site "Leningrad"] [Date "1960.??.??"] [Round "?"] [White "Boris Spassky"] [Black "David Bronstein"] [Result "10"] 1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 d5 4.exd5 Bd6 5.Nc3 Ne7 6.d4 00 7.Bd3 Nd7 8.00 h6 9.Ne4 Nxd5 10.c4 Ne3 11.Bxe3 fxe3 12.c5 Be7 13.Bc2 Re8 14.Qd3 e2 15.Nd6 Nf8 16.Nxf7 exf1Q+ 17.Rxf1 Bf5 18.Qxf5 Qd7 19.Qf4 Bf6 20.N3e5 Qe7 21.Bb3 Bxe5 22.Nxe5+ Kh7 23.Qe4+ 10
 Desde Rusia con Amor, YouTube Video
See also
 From Codebreaking to Computing  Video from The Computer History Museum
 Point Value  Theoretical Attempt
 The Strange Life and Death of Dr Turing  Video
Selected Publications
^{[22]} ^{[23]}
1939
1940 ...
 Jack Good (1941) Fourier Analysis. Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, advisor Godfrey Harold Hardy
 Jack Good, Donald Michie, Geoffrey Timms (1945). General Report on Tunny from The Turing Archive for the History of Computing
 Jack Good (1946). Normal Recurring Decimals. Journal of the London Mathematical Society 1946
 Jack Good (1949). The number of individuals in a casade process. Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, Vol. 45
1950 ...
 Jack Good (1950). Probability and the Weighing of Evidence. Griffin, London
 Jack Good (1952/55). Notes on Randomised Chess. Chess
 Jack Good (1953). The population frequencies of species and the estimation of population parameters. Biometrika, Vol. 40, Nos. 34 ^{[24]}
 Jack Good (1959). Could a machine make probability judgments? Computers and Automation, Vol. 8
1960 ...
 Jack Good (1962). Botryological speculations. in
 Jack Good, A. J. Mayne, John Maynard Smith (eds.) (1962). The Scientist Speculates. Heinemann
 Jack Good (1964). Measurement of decisions. in William W. Cooper, Harold J. Leavitt, Maynard W. Shelly (eds.) (1964). New Perspectives in Organisation Research. pp. 391404. Wiley
 Jack Good (1964). The Human Preserve. an Invited Contribution to a Symposium on Extraterrestrial Life held by the Institute of Biology and the British Interplanetary Society, May 1964, Records of Royal Naval Scientific Service
 Jack Good (1965). Speculations Concerning the First Ultraintelligent Machine. Advances in Computers, Vol. 6, pdf, pdf
 Jack Good (1965). The generalization of Lagrange's expansion and the enumeration of trees. Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, Vol. 61, No. 2
 Jack Good (1965). Logic of man and machine. IPC Magazines Limited
 Jack Good (1965). The Mystery of Go. Literature: Reports hosted by Atlas Computer Laboratory
 Jack Good (1966). The probability of war. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A, Vol. 129
 Jack Good (1967). Human and machine logic. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, Vol. 18
 Jack Good, R.F. Churchhouse (1968). A New Conjecture Related to the Riemann Hypothesis. in Some Research Applications of the Computer, Atlas Computer Laboratory
 Jack Good (1968). A FiveYear Plan for Automatic Chess. Machine Intelligence Vol. 2, pdf ^{[25]}
 Jack Good (1969). Analysis of the machine chess game, J. Scott (White), ICL1900 versus R.D. Greenblatt, PDP10. Machine Intelligence Vol. 4 pp. 267270 » John J. Scott, ICL 1900, Richard Greenblatt, PDP10
1970 ...
 Jack Good (1977). Dynamic Probability, Computer Chess, and the Measurement of Knowledge. Machine Intelligence Vol. 8 pp. 139150
 Jack Good (1978). Review of "Advances in Computer Chess, Volume 1. by M.R.B. Clarke"; University Press, 1977. ACM SIGART Bulletin, Issue 66 » Mike Clarke, Advances in Computer Chess 1
 Jack Good (1978). Historical Notes. Personal Computing, Vol. 2, No. 10, pp. 80, October 1978, from Jack Good (1968). A FiveYear Plan for Automatic Chess.
 Jack Good (1978). Historical Notes. Personal Computing, Vol. 2, No. 11, pp. 27, November 1978, cont.
 Jack Good (1979). On the Grading of Chess Players. Personal Computing, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 47
 Jack Good (1979). Rules for computer chess tournaments: an open letter to the tournament rules and organization committee of the International Computer Chess Association. ICCA Newsletter, Vol. 2, No. 2
 Jack Good (1979). Studies in the history of probability and statistics. XXXVII AM Turing’s statistical work in World War II. Biometrika, Vol. 66, No. 2
1980 ...
 Jack Good (1982). When will the rules of chess be changed? British Chess Magazine 102, No. 7 (July 1982), 305306.
 Jack Good (1988). Some Comments Concerning an Article by De Groot. ICCA Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2/3 ^{[26]}
 Jack Good (1988). The Interface Between Statistics and Philosophy of Science. Statistical Science, Vol. 3, No. 4
1990 ...
 Jack Good (1991). Analysis of the chess position shown in the film From Russia with Love, Kronsteen vs. MacAdams. Chess Monthly, Vol. 56, No. 5
 Jack Good (1998). The first game of randomized chess played in a regular chess match. Chess Monthly, Vol. 63, No. 5
2000 ...
 Jack Good (2000). Turing’s anticipation of emprical Bayes in connection with the cryptanalysis of the naval enigma. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, Vol. 66, No. 2 ^{[27]} ^{[28]} ^{[29]}
 Pamela McCorduck (2004). Machines Who Think: A Personal Inquiry into the History and Prospects of Artificial Intelligence. A. K. Peters (25th anniversary edition)
External Links
 I.J. Good from Wikipedia
 Good–Turing frequency estimation from Wikipedia
 The Mathematics Genealogy Project  Irving Good
 Ratio Club from Wikipedia
 I.J. Good  University Distinguished Professor Emeritus, 196794 from Virginia Tech
 Irving John (Jack) Good from PEOPLE and PIONEERS © J.A.N. Lee, 19982002.
 Professor I J Good from Atlas Computer Laboratory, hosted by Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL)
 Professor Jack Good, Telegraph, April 09, 2009
 Spies and Spymasters > Second World War > Jack Good from Spartacus Educational
 Chess and the CodeBreakers by Edward Winter
References
 ↑ VT Image Base Photographs Creator: Pat Hill of OMNI Magazine 1979, January issue
 ↑ Jack Good, Donald Michie, Geoffrey Timms (1945). General Report on Tunny from The Turing Archive for the History of Computing
 ↑ From Codebreaking to Computing  Video from The Computer History Museum
 ↑ Singularity Institute for Artificial Intelligence from Wikipedia
 ↑ Jack Good (1965). Speculations Concerning the First Ultraintelligent Machine. Advances in Computers, Vol. 6, pdf, pdf
 ↑ In Memoriam: I. J. Good, University Distinguished Professor and pioneer of modern statistics, Obituary from Virginia Tech
 ↑ VT Image Base Photographs Creator: Pat Hill of OMNI Magazine 1979, January issue
 ↑ Machine Intelligence series
 ↑ Jack Good (1968). A FiveYear Plan for Automatic Chess. Machine Intelligence Vol. 2, pdf
 ↑ David Levy (1988). Computer Chess Compendium  3.2 A FiveYear Plan for Automatic Chess (excerpt).
 ↑ Jack Good (1968). A FiveYear Plan for Automatic Chess. Machine Intelligence Vol. 2, pp. 93
 ↑ David C. Cooper (1966). Mathematical proofs about computer programs. Machine Intelligence, Vol. 1
 ↑ Excerpts from Acceptance Speech for the 1998 Computer Pioneers Award from the IEEE  Jack Good hosted by Atlas Computer Laboratory
 ↑ David Levy (1988). Computer Chess Compendium, 3 Position Evaluation pp. 112
 ↑ Obituary, The Times  Brilliant mathematician and Bletchley Park codebreaker who laid the foundations of modern statistics hosted by Atlas Computer Laboratory
 ↑ 2001: A Space Odyssey  Science  Accuracy
 ↑ Marvin Minsky from Wikipedia  Biography
 ↑ Jack Good (1991). Analysis of the chess position shown in the film From Russia with Love, Kronsteen vs. MacAdams. Chess Monthly, Vol. 56, No. 5
 ↑ The Chess Game in the James Bond classic From Russia, With Love from Ernst's Home Page
 ↑ OPEN CHESS DIARY 241260, 250. July 6, 2004: You are requested to make a blunder by Tim Krabbé
 ↑ The name is Spassky – Boris Spassky from ChessBase news, September 2, 2004
 ↑ ICGA Reference Database
 ↑ I.J. Good's Shorter Publications List (pdf) from Virginia Tech
 ↑ Good–Turing frequency estimation
 ↑ Paul Rushton, Tony Marsland (1973). Current Chess Programs: A Summary of their Potential and Limitations. INFOR Journal of the Canadian Information Processing Society Vol. 11, No. 1, pdf
 ↑ Adriaan de Groot (1988). A Rejoinder to I.J. Good's Comments. ICCA Journal, Vol. 11, No. 2/3
 ↑ Banburismus from Wikipedia
 ↑ Good–Turing frequency estimation from Wikipedia
 ↑ David McAllester, Robert Schapire (2000). On the Convergence Rate of GoodTuring Estimators. COLT 2000, CiteSeerX