Bratko-Kopec Test

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The Bratko-Kopec Test (BK-Test) was designed by Ivan Bratko and Danny Kopec in 1982 at the University of Edinburgh [1]. The Bratko-Kopec Test was widely discussed [2], updated [3] and revisited [4] [5] [6].


by Danny Kopec [7]:

The Bratko-Kopec Test was designed by Dr. Ivan Bratko and Dr. Danny Kopec in 1982 to evaluate human or machine chess ability based on the presence or absence of certain knowledge (i.e. Master, Expert, Novice, etc). This test has been a standard for nearly 20 years in computer chess. Experience has shown it very reliable in corresponding to the chess rating of humans and machines. 


Extended Position Description [8][9]

1k1r4/pp1b1R2/3q2pp/4p3/2B5/4Q3/PPP2B2/2K5 b - - bm Qd1+; id "BK.01";
3r1k2/4npp1/1ppr3p/p6P/P2PPPP1/1NR5/5K2/2R5 w - - bm d5; id "BK.02";
2q1rr1k/3bbnnp/p2p1pp1/2pPp3/PpP1P1P1/1P2BNNP/2BQ1PRK/7R b - - bm f5; id "BK.03";
rnbqkb1r/p3pppp/1p6/2ppP3/3N4/2P5/PPP1QPPP/R1B1KB1R w KQkq - bm e6; id "BK.04";
r1b2rk1/2q1b1pp/p2ppn2/1p6/3QP3/1BN1B3/PPP3PP/R4RK1 w - - bm Nd5 a4; id "BK.05";
2r3k1/pppR1pp1/4p3/4P1P1/5P2/1P4K1/P1P5/8 w - - bm g6; id "BK.06";
1nk1r1r1/pp2n1pp/4p3/q2pPp1N/b1pP1P2/B1P2R2/2P1B1PP/R2Q2K1 w - - bm Nf6; id "BK.07";
4b3/p3kp2/6p1/3pP2p/2pP1P2/4K1P1/P3N2P/8 w - - bm f5; id "BK.08";
2kr1bnr/pbpq4/2n1pp2/3p3p/3P1P1B/2N2N1Q/PPP3PP/2KR1B1R w - - bm f5; id "BK.09";
3rr1k1/pp3pp1/1qn2np1/8/3p4/PP1R1P2/2P1NQPP/R1B3K1 b - - bm Ne5; id "BK.10";
2r1nrk1/p2q1ppp/bp1p4/n1pPp3/P1P1P3/2PBB1N1/4QPPP/R4RK1 w - - bm f4; id "BK.11";
r3r1k1/ppqb1ppp/8/4p1NQ/8/2P5/PP3PPP/R3R1K1 b - - bm Bf5; id "BK.12";
r2q1rk1/4bppp/p2p4/2pP4/3pP3/3Q4/PP1B1PPP/R3R1K1 w - - bm b4; id "BK.13";
rnb2r1k/pp2p2p/2pp2p1/q2P1p2/8/1Pb2NP1/PB2PPBP/R2Q1RK1 w - - bm Qd2 Qe1; id "BK.14";
2r3k1/1p2q1pp/2b1pr2/p1pp4/6Q1/1P1PP1R1/P1PN2PP/5RK1 w - - bm Qxg7+; id "BK.15";
r1bqkb1r/4npp1/p1p4p/1p1pP1B1/8/1B6/PPPN1PPP/R2Q1RK1 w kq - bm Ne4; id "BK.16";
r2q1rk1/1ppnbppp/p2p1nb1/3Pp3/2P1P1P1/2N2N1P/PPB1QP2/R1B2RK1 b - - bm h5; id "BK.17";
r1bq1rk1/pp2ppbp/2np2p1/2n5/P3PP2/N1P2N2/1PB3PP/R1B1QRK1 b - - bm Nb3; id "BK.18";
3rr3/2pq2pk/p2p1pnp/8/2QBPP2/1P6/P5PP/4RRK1 b - - bm Rxe4; id "BK.19";
r4k2/pb2bp1r/1p1qp2p/3pNp2/3P1P2/2N3P1/PPP1Q2P/2KRR3 w - - bm g4; id "BK.20";
3rn2k/ppb2rpp/2ppqp2/5N2/2P1P3/1P5Q/PB3PPP/3RR1K1 w - - bm Nh6; id "BK.21";
2r2rk1/1bqnbpp1/1p1ppn1p/pP6/N1P1P3/P2B1N1P/1B2QPP1/R2R2K1 b - - bm Bxe4; id "BK.22";
r1bqk2r/pp2bppp/2p5/3pP3/P2Q1P2/2N1B3/1PP3PP/R4RK1 b kq - bm f6; id "BK.23";
r2qnrnk/p2b2b1/1p1p2pp/2pPpp2/1PP1P3/PRNBB3/3QNPPP/5RK1 w - - bm f4; id "BK.24";


Forum Posts

External Links


  1. Ivan Bratko, Danny Kopec (1982). A Test for Comparison of Human and Computer Performance in Chess. Advances in Computer Chess 3
  2. Bratko-Kopec #2 by Bruce Moreland, rgcc, November 13, 1996
  3. Danny Kopec, Enrique Irazoqui, Ivan Bratko (1983). The Updated Bratko-Kopec Test. Computer Chess Digest Annual pp. 45-63
  4. Tony Marsland (1990). The Bratko-Kopec Test Revisited. ICCA Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1
  5. Tony Marsland (1990). The Bratko-Kopec Test Revisited. Computers, Chess, and Cognition, pp. 217-223
  6. Shawn Benn, Danny Kopec (1993). The Bratko-Kopec Test Recalibrated. ICCA Journal, Vol. 16, No. 3, pdf
  7. Kopec Chess Services - The Bratko-Kopec Test
  8. Test suites by David Rasmussen, rgcc, October 25, 1998
  9. Sanny: Some test positions for you by Guest,, August 18, 2008
  10. Revised version of the paper Comparison and Testing of Six Commercial Computer Chess Programs, presented at the WCCC 1992 - Workshop: The Impact of Computer Chess on AI Research by Tony Marsland

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