Difference between revisions of "Kalah"

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=Selected Publications=
 
=Selected Publications=
 
* [http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/db/indices/a-tree/s/Silver:Roland.html Roland Silver] ('''1961'''). ''The Kalah Game Playing Program''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Equipment_Corporation Digital Equipment Corporation], [http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/dec/pdp1/memos/M-1098_Kalah_Mar61.pdf pdf], and PDP Application Note as [http://archive.computerhistory.org/resources/text/DEC/pdp-1/DEC.pdp_1.1961.102645673.pdf pdf]
 
* [http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/db/indices/a-tree/s/Silver:Roland.html Roland Silver] ('''1961'''). ''The Kalah Game Playing Program''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Equipment_Corporation Digital Equipment Corporation], [http://www.bitsavers.org/pdf/dec/pdp1/memos/M-1098_Kalah_Mar61.pdf pdf], and PDP Application Note as [http://archive.computerhistory.org/resources/text/DEC/pdp-1/DEC.pdp_1.1961.102645673.pdf pdf]
* R. Russell ('''1964'''). ''Kalah- the game and program''. Stanford artificial intelligence project, Memo. No. 22.
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* R. Russell ('''1964'''). ''Kalah- the game and program''. Stanford Artificial Intelligence Project, Memo. No. 22
 
* [[Alex Bell]] ('''1968'''). ''[http://www.chilton-computing.org.uk/acl/literature/reports/p003.htm Kalah on Atlas]''. [http://www.chilton-computing.org.uk/acl/literature/reports/overview.htm Literature: Reports] hosted by [[Atlas Computer Laboratory]]
 
* [[Alex Bell]] ('''1968'''). ''[http://www.chilton-computing.org.uk/acl/literature/reports/p003.htm Kalah on Atlas]''. [http://www.chilton-computing.org.uk/acl/literature/reports/overview.htm Literature: Reports] hosted by [[Atlas Computer Laboratory]]
* [[James R. Slagle]], [[Philip Bursky]] ('''1968'''). ''[http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=321444 Experiments With a Multipurpose, Theorem-Proving Heuristic Program]''. [[ACM#Journal|Journal of the ACM]], Vol. 15, No. 1 <ref>[http://projecteuclid.org/DPubS?service=UI&version=1.0&verb=Display&handle=euclid.jsl/1183737432 Cooper: Review: James R. Slagle, Philip Bursky, Experiments with a Multipurpose, Theorem-Proving Heuristic Program]</ref>
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* [[James R. Slagle]], [[Philip Bursky]] ('''1968'''). ''[https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=321444 Experiments With a Multipurpose, Theorem-Proving Heuristic Program]''. [[ACM#Journal|Journal of the ACM]], Vol. 15, No. 1 <ref>[http://projecteuclid.org/DPubS?service=UI&version=1.0&verb=Display&handle=euclid.jsl/1183737432 Cooper: Review: James R. Slagle, Philip Bursky, Experiments with a Multipurpose, Theorem-Proving Heuristic Program]</ref>
 
* [[James R. Slagle]], [[John K. Dixon]] ('''1969'''). ''Experiments With Some Programs That Search Game Trees''. [[ACM#Journal|Journal of the ACM]], Vol. 16, No. 2, [http://wiki.cs.pdx.edu/wurzburg2009/nfp/abmin.pdf pdf]
 
* [[James R. Slagle]], [[John K. Dixon]] ('''1969'''). ''Experiments With Some Programs That Search Game Trees''. [[ACM#Journal|Journal of the ACM]], Vol. 16, No. 2, [http://wiki.cs.pdx.edu/wurzburg2009/nfp/abmin.pdf pdf]
 
* [[James R. Slagle]], [[John K. Dixon]] ('''1970'''). ''[http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=362052.362054 Experiments with the M & N Tree-Searching Program]''. [[ACM#Communications|Communications of the ACM]], Vol. 13, No. 3
 
* [[James R. Slagle]], [[John K. Dixon]] ('''1970'''). ''[http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=362052.362054 Experiments with the M & N Tree-Searching Program]''. [[ACM#Communications|Communications of the ACM]], Vol. 13, No. 3
 
* [[Geoffrey Irving]], [[Jeroen Donkers]], [[Jos Uiterwijk]] ('''2000'''). ''Solving Kalah''. [[5th Computer Olympiad#Workshop|5th Computer Olympiad Workshop]]
 
* [[Geoffrey Irving]], [[Jeroen Donkers]], [[Jos Uiterwijk]] ('''2000'''). ''Solving Kalah''. [[5th Computer Olympiad#Workshop|5th Computer Olympiad Workshop]]
* [[Geoffrey Irving]], [[Jeroen Donkers]], [[Jos Uiterwijk]] ('''2000'''). ''Solving Kalah''. [[ICGA Journal]], Vol. 23, No. 3, [http://naml.us/~irving/papers/irving2000_kalah.pdf pdf]
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* [[Geoffrey Irving]], [[Jeroen Donkers]], [[Jos Uiterwijk]] ('''2000'''). ''Solving Kalah''. [[ICGA Journal#23_3|ICGA Journal, Vol. 23, No. 3]]
 
* [[Wee Chong Oon]], [[Yew Jin Lim]] ('''2003'''). ''An Investigation on Piece Differential Information in Co-Evolution on Games Using Kalah.'' Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC2003), Vol. 3, [http://www.yewjin.com/storage/papers/Kalah_CEC2003.pdf pdf]
 
* [[Wee Chong Oon]], [[Yew Jin Lim]] ('''2003'''). ''An Investigation on Piece Differential Information in Co-Evolution on Games Using Kalah.'' Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC2003), Vol. 3, [http://www.yewjin.com/storage/papers/Kalah_CEC2003.pdf pdf]
  
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* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalah Kalah from Wikipedia]
 
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalah Kalah from Wikipedia]
 
* [http://mancala.wikia.com/wiki/Kalah Kalah] from [http://mancala.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page Mancala World]
 
* [http://mancala.wikia.com/wiki/Kalah Kalah] from [http://mancala.wikia.com/wiki/Main_Page Mancala World]
* [http://www.fdg.unimaas.nl/educ/donkers/games/kalah/ Kalah page] by [[Jeroen Donkers]]
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* [http://healthy.uwaterloo.ca/museum/VirtualExhibits/countcap/pages/kalah.html Kalah: A Commercial Count and Capture Game] from [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elliott_Avedon_Museum_and_Archive_of_Games Elliott Avedon Museum and Archive of Games], [[University of Waterloo]]
* [http://www.gamesmuseum.uwaterloo.ca/VirtualExhibits/countcap/pages/kalah.html Kalah: A Commercial Count and Capture Game] from [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elliott_Avedon_Museum_and_Archive_of_Games Elliott Avedon Museum and Archive of Games], [[University of Waterloo]]
 
 
* [http://kalaha.krus.dk/ Solving (6,6)-Kalaha] by [[Anders Carstensen]], first published April 14, 2011
 
* [http://kalaha.krus.dk/ Solving (6,6)-Kalaha] by [[Anders Carstensen]], first published April 14, 2011
  

Revision as of 00:04, 9 January 2019

Home * Games * Kalah

Wooden Kalah-Board [1]

Kalah,
a two-player abstract strategy game in the Mancala family invented in 1940 by William Julius Champion, Jr., commercialized since 1944 and patented in 1952 (Design) and 1955 (Rules). The Kalah brand name was protected in the US from 1970 until 2002, but was copycat under various names and variants such as Conference (Mieg's, 1965), Sahara (Pelikan, 1976) [2] and Bantumi (Nokia Mobiles since 2000) [3].


Kalah in AI

Kalah has a long history in Artificial Intelligence research. First Kalah programs were already written in the 60s, Alex Bell popularized Kalah programming in 1968 [4]. In 1968, James R. Slagle and Philip Bursky used Kalah in Theorem-Proving [5], and in 1970, Slagle and Dixon illustrated their M & N search algorithm with Kalah as well [6].

Jugend forscht

Paul Erich Frielinghaus, a German actor, developed a Kalah program (he called the game Serata) as High School student in 1978 and participated in the German youth science competition Jugend forscht [7].

Solving Kalah

The notation (m,n)-Kalah refers to Kalah with m pits per side and n stones in each pit. In 2000, Kalah was solved by Geoffrey Irving, Jeroen Donkers, and Jos Uiterwijk for all m ≤ 6 and n ≤ 6, except (6,6) [8] [9]. (6,6)-Kalah was solved in 2011 by Anders Carstensen and Kim Skak Larsen [10].

See also

Selected Publications

External Links

References

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