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M-2 was a Soviet digital computer developed in the Laboratory of Electrical Systems in the Institute of Energy of the USSR Academy of Science, designed by Isaak Semenovich Bruk. The M-2 development team, at different stages, of 7 to 10 engineers was lead by Mikhail Alexanderovich Kartsev.


The M-2 was assembled in the period from April till December 1952, upgraded until 1956, since 1953 solving applied tasks on round-the-clock basis with fixed and floating point numbers. Instructions were 34-bit wide, had three address codes and 4-bit opcode. The control circuit and ALU used tube and semiconductor diodes. The internal storage devices included the main electrostatic device (standard cathode-ray tubes) that held up to 512 numbers and had regeneration cycle of 25 µs, and an additional magnetic drum that held up to 512 numbers and rotated at 2860 revolutions/min [1].

ITEP Chess Program

The M-2 ran the ITEP Chess Program developed in the early 60s at Alexander Kronrod’s laboratory at the Moscow Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics by Georgy Adelson-Velsky, Vladimir Arlazarov, Anatoly Uskov, Alexander Zhivotovsky, A. Leman, M. Rozenfeld and Russian chess master Alexander Bitman [2]

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