Difference between revisions of "Paul W. Abrahams"

From Chessprogramming wiki
Jump to: navigation, search
 
(One intermediate revision by the same user not shown)
Line 4: Line 4:
 
an American mathematician, consulting computer scientist, and past president of the [[ACM|Association for Computing Machinery]]. Paul W. Abrahams received a bachelor's degree in mathematics in 1956, and a Ph.D. in mathematics in 1963 on ''Machine Verification of Mathematical Proof'', both from [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology]], studying [[Artificial Intelligence|artificial intelligence]] under [[Marvin Minsky]] and [[John McCarthy]]. He is one of the designers of the first [[Lisp]] system and also the designer of the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Courant_Institute_of_Mathematical_Sciences CIMS] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PL/I PL/I] system.  
 
an American mathematician, consulting computer scientist, and past president of the [[ACM|Association for Computing Machinery]]. Paul W. Abrahams received a bachelor's degree in mathematics in 1956, and a Ph.D. in mathematics in 1963 on ''Machine Verification of Mathematical Proof'', both from [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology]], studying [[Artificial Intelligence|artificial intelligence]] under [[Marvin Minsky]] and [[John McCarthy]]. He is one of the designers of the first [[Lisp]] system and also the designer of the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Courant_Institute_of_Mathematical_Sciences CIMS] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PL/I PL/I] system.  
  
=Kotok-McCarthy=
+
=Computer Chess=
Paul W. Abrahams contributed to the [[Kotok-McCarthy-Program]], as mentioned in [[Alan Kotok|Alan Kotok's]] memo and thesis about the program <ref>[[Alan Kotok]] ('''1962'''). ''[http://www.kotok.org/AI_Memo_41.html Artificial Intelligence Project - MIT Computation Center: Memo 41 - A Chess Playing Program]''. [ftp://publications.ai.mit.edu/ai-publications/pdf/AIM-041.pdf pdf]</ref> <ref>[[Alan Kotok]] ('''1962'''). ''A Chess Playing Program for the IBM 7090''. B.S. Thesis, MIT, AI Project Memo 41, Computation Center, Cambridge MA. [http://www.kotok.org/AK-Thesis-1962.pdf pdf]</ref>:
+
==Mate-in-two==
  In the fall of 1960 the chess group, without [[Elwyn Berlekamp|Mr. Berlekamp]], began planning for the general chess program. It was decided to retain the original McCarthy/Abrahams move routines, and to continue coding in [[Fortran|FORTRAN]]  and FAP. The program was to be a variable [[Depth|depth]] search with a "stable position" termination. An [[Evaluation|evaluation]] was to be made at the terminal points of the move tree. This evaluation would be a weighted sum of such criteria as [[Material|material balance]], [[Center Control|center control]], [[Pawn Structure|pawn structure]], "[[Tempo|tempo]]" advantage, and [[Development|development]].  
+
In the 2007 interview with Arthur Norberg, Abrahams mentioned that he met [[Claude Shannon]] and was working with him and [[John McCarthy|McCarthy]] — on a chess program <ref>[http://www.cbi.umn.edu/about/norberg.html Arthur Norberg] ('''2007'''). ''[http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1380529 Paul W. Abrahams Interview]''.</ref>:
 +
And I also met [[Claude Shannon]] and was working with him and [[John McCarthy|McCarthy]] — on a chess program. It calculated two-move mates and was written in [[Fortran|FORTRAN]]. That was also the time that FORTRAN was starting to hit the world. 
 +
 
 +
==Kotok-McCarthy==
 +
Paul W. Abrahams' routines were used in the [[Kotok-McCarthy-Program]], as mentioned in [[Alan Kotok|Alan Kotok's]] memo and thesis about the program <ref>[[Alan Kotok]] ('''1962'''). ''[http://www.kotok.org/AI_Memo_41.html Artificial Intelligence Project - MIT Computation Center: Memo 41 - A Chess Playing Program]''. [ftp://publications.ai.mit.edu/ai-publications/pdf/AIM-041.pdf pdf]</ref> <ref>[[Alan Kotok]] ('''1962'''). ''A Chess Playing Program for the IBM 7090''. B.S. Thesis, MIT, AI Project Memo 41, Computation Center, Cambridge MA. [http://www.kotok.org/AK-Thesis-1962.pdf pdf]</ref>:
 +
In the fall of 1960 the chess group, without [[Elwyn Berlekamp|Mr. Berlekamp]], began planning for the general chess program. It was decided to retain the original McCarthy/Abrahams move routines, and to continue coding in [[Fortran|FORTRAN]]  and FAP. The program was to be a variable [[Depth|depth]] search with a "stable position" termination. An [[Evaluation|evaluation]] was to be made at the terminal points of the move tree. This evaluation would be a weighted sum of such criteria as [[Material|material balance]], [[Center Control|center control]], [[Pawn Structure|pawn structure]], "[[Tempo|tempo]]" advantage, and [[Development|development]].  
  
 
=Selected Publications=  
 
=Selected Publications=  
<ref>[http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/db/indices/a-tree/a/Abrahams:Paul_W=.html DBLP: Paul W. Abrahams]</ref>
+
<ref>[https://dblp.uni-trier.de/pers/hd/a/Abrahams:Paul_W=.html dblp: Paul W. Abrahams]</ref>
 +
==1960 ...==
 
* [[John McCarthy]], [[Paul W. Abrahams]], [[Daniel Edwards]], [[Timothy Hart]], [[Michael Levin]] ('''1962''') ''LISP 1.5 Programmer's Manual''. The M.I.T. Press, second edition (1985) as [http://www.softwarepreservation.org/projects/LISP/book/LISP%201.5%20Programmers%20Manual.pdf pdf] <ref>[http://www.softwarepreservation.org/projects/LISP/book/LISP%201.5%20Programmers%20Manual.pdf/view McCarthy et al. LISP 1.5 Programmer's Manual.] from [[The Computer History Museum]] Software Preservation Group</ref>
 
* [[John McCarthy]], [[Paul W. Abrahams]], [[Daniel Edwards]], [[Timothy Hart]], [[Michael Levin]] ('''1962''') ''LISP 1.5 Programmer's Manual''. The M.I.T. Press, second edition (1985) as [http://www.softwarepreservation.org/projects/LISP/book/LISP%201.5%20Programmers%20Manual.pdf pdf] <ref>[http://www.softwarepreservation.org/projects/LISP/book/LISP%201.5%20Programmers%20Manual.pdf/view McCarthy et al. LISP 1.5 Programmer's Manual.] from [[The Computer History Museum]] Software Preservation Group</ref>
 
* [[Paul W. Abrahams]] ('''1963'''). ''Machine Verification of Mathematical Proof''. Ph.D. Thesis in Mathematics, [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology]], Cambridge, Massachusetts
 
* [[Paul W. Abrahams]] ('''1963'''). ''Machine Verification of Mathematical Proof''. Ph.D. Thesis in Mathematics, [[Massachusetts Institute of Technology]], Cambridge, Massachusetts
* [[Paul W. Abrahams]] ('''1966'''). ''A final solution to the Dangling else of ALGOL 60 and related languages''. [[ACM#Communications|Communications of the ACM]] Vol. 9, No. 9
+
* [[Paul W. Abrahams]] ('''1966'''). ''A final solution to the Dangling else of ALGOL 60 and related languages''. [[ACM#Communications|Communications of the ACM]], Vol. 9, No. 9
 
* [[Paul W. Abrahams]] ('''1968'''). ''Symbol Manipulation Languages''. Advances in Computers 9
 
* [[Paul W. Abrahams]] ('''1968'''). ''Symbol Manipulation Languages''. Advances in Computers 9
* [[Paul W. Abrahams]] ('''1974'''). ''Some Remarks on Lookup of Structured Variables''. [[ACM#Communications|Communications of the ACM]] Vol. 17, No. 4
+
==1970 ...==
 +
* [[Paul W. Abrahams]] ('''1974'''). ''Some Remarks on Lookup of Structured Variables''. [[ACM#Communications|Communications of the ACM]], Vol. 17, No. 4
 
* [[Paul W. Abrahams]] ('''1979'''). ''The CIMS PL/I compiler''. SIGPLAN Symposium on Compiler Construction
 
* [[Paul W. Abrahams]] ('''1979'''). ''The CIMS PL/I compiler''. SIGPLAN Symposium on Compiler Construction
 +
==1980 ...==
 +
* [[Paul W. Abrahams]] ('''1983'''). ''Subset/G PL/I and the PL/I Standard''. ACM Annual Conference 1983
 
* [[Paul W. Abrahams]] ('''1988'''). ''Some sad remarks about string handling in C''. SIGPLAN Notices Vol. 23, No. 10
 
* [[Paul W. Abrahams]] ('''1988'''). ''Some sad remarks about string handling in C''. SIGPLAN Notices Vol. 23, No. 10
* [[Paul W. Abrahams]] ('''1988'''). ''The Strategic Defense Initiative - President's Letter''. [[ACM#Communications|Communications of the ACM]] Vol. 31, No. 6
+
* [[Paul W. Abrahams]] ('''1988'''). ''The Strategic Defense Initiative - President's Letter''. [[ACM#Communications|Communications of the ACM]], Vol. 31, No. 6
 +
==1990 ...==
 
* [[Paul W. Abrahams]], [http://dangerouscurve.org/k/ Kathryn A. Hargreaves], [http://www.tug.org/interviews/berry.html Karl Berry] ('''1990'''). ''[http://www.bluesky.com/bookshelf/texfortheimpatient/tfti.html TEX for the Impatient]''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Addison-Wesley Addison-Wesley], ISBN 0-201-51375-7, [http://sunsite.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/ftp/pub/mirror/ctan/info/impatient/book.pdf pdf], [http://books.google.com/books/about/TEX_for_the_impatient.html?id=9wwZAQAAIAAJ google], [http://www.amazon.com/Tex-Impatient-Paul-W-Abrahams/dp/0201513757 amazon] <ref>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TeX TeX from Wikipedia]</ref>
 
* [[Paul W. Abrahams]], [http://dangerouscurve.org/k/ Kathryn A. Hargreaves], [http://www.tug.org/interviews/berry.html Karl Berry] ('''1990'''). ''[http://www.bluesky.com/bookshelf/texfortheimpatient/tfti.html TEX for the Impatient]''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Addison-Wesley Addison-Wesley], ISBN 0-201-51375-7, [http://sunsite.informatik.rwth-aachen.de/ftp/pub/mirror/ctan/info/impatient/book.pdf pdf], [http://books.google.com/books/about/TEX_for_the_impatient.html?id=9wwZAQAAIAAJ google], [http://www.amazon.com/Tex-Impatient-Paul-W-Abrahams/dp/0201513757 amazon] <ref>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TeX TeX from Wikipedia]</ref>
 
* [[Paul W. Abrahams]] ('''1993'''). ''Typographical Extensions for Programming Languages: Breaking out of the ASCII Straitjacket''. SIGPLAN Notices 28(2)
 
* [[Paul W. Abrahams]] ('''1993'''). ''Typographical Extensions for Programming Languages: Breaking out of the ASCII Straitjacket''. SIGPLAN Notices 28(2)
 
* [[Paul W. Abrahams]], [http://www.informit.com/authors/bio.aspx?a=3df2119c-f10e-412e-a1ea-5d5e030eb8d4 Bruce R. Larson] ('''1996'''). ''Unix for the Impatient''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Addison-Wesley Addison-Wesley], ISBN 0-201-82376-4, [http://books.google.com/books/about/Unix_for_the_impatient.html?id=kqJVAAAAMAAJ google], [http://www.amazon.com/UNIX-Impatient-2nd-Paul-Abrahams/dp/0201823764 amozon]
 
* [[Paul W. Abrahams]], [http://www.informit.com/authors/bio.aspx?a=3df2119c-f10e-412e-a1ea-5d5e030eb8d4 Bruce R. Larson] ('''1996'''). ''Unix for the Impatient''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Addison-Wesley Addison-Wesley], ISBN 0-201-82376-4, [http://books.google.com/books/about/Unix_for_the_impatient.html?id=kqJVAAAAMAAJ google], [http://www.amazon.com/UNIX-Impatient-2nd-Paul-Abrahams/dp/0201823764 amozon]
* [http://www.cbi.umn.edu/about/norberg.html Arthur Norberg] ('''2007'''). ''[http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1380529 Paul W. Abrahams Interview]''. [http://delivery.acm.org/10.1145/1390000/1380529/paul_abrahams_interview.pdf?ip=195.50.166.189&id=1380529&acc=OPEN&key=4D4702B0C3E38B35%2E4D4702B0C3E38B35%2E4D4702B0C3E38B35%2E6D218144511F3437&__acm__=1538400928_bf0a908290a208fb710a95ad056fc14e pdf]
+
==2000 ...==
 +
* [http://www.cbi.umn.edu/about/norberg.html Arthur Norberg] ('''2007'''). ''[http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1380529 Paul W. Abrahams Interview]''.  
  
 
=External Links=
 
=External Links=

Latest revision as of 18:40, 1 October 2018

Home * People * Paul W. Abrahams

Paul W. Abrahams,
an American mathematician, consulting computer scientist, and past president of the Association for Computing Machinery. Paul W. Abrahams received a bachelor's degree in mathematics in 1956, and a Ph.D. in mathematics in 1963 on Machine Verification of Mathematical Proof, both from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, studying artificial intelligence under Marvin Minsky and John McCarthy. He is one of the designers of the first Lisp system and also the designer of the CIMS PL/I system.

Computer Chess

Mate-in-two

In the 2007 interview with Arthur Norberg, Abrahams mentioned that he met Claude Shannon and was working with him and McCarthy — on a chess program [1]:

And I also met Claude Shannon and was working with him and McCarthy — on a chess program. It calculated two-move mates and was written in FORTRAN. That was also the time that FORTRAN was starting to hit the world.  

Kotok-McCarthy

Paul W. Abrahams' routines were used in the Kotok-McCarthy-Program, as mentioned in Alan Kotok's memo and thesis about the program [2] [3]:

In the fall of 1960 the chess group, without Mr. Berlekamp, began planning for the general chess program. It was decided to retain the original McCarthy/Abrahams move routines, and to continue coding in FORTRAN  and FAP. The program was to be a variable depth search with a "stable position" termination. An evaluation was to be made at the terminal points of the move tree. This evaluation would be a weighted sum of such criteria as material balance, center control, pawn structure, "tempo" advantage, and development. 

Selected Publications

[4]

1960 ...

1970 ...

1980 ...

1990 ...

2000 ...

External Links

References

Up one level