# Martin Gardner

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**Martin Gardner**, (October 21, 1914 - May 22, 2010)

was an American polymath, recreational mathematics and science writer, and author of the Mathematical Games column in Scientific American from 1956 to 1981 ^{[2]} ^{[3]}. He was inventor of various games such as 5×5 Minichess, which was recently weakly solved by Frédéric Prost and Mehdi Mhalla ^{[4]} ^{[5]}, and Hexapawn, designed to demonstrate Michie's machine learning algorithm with only 24 Matchboxes instead of 300 as required for the tic-tac-toe machine MENACE ^{[6]}. Due to his publications, Gardner popularized countless mathematical games and puzzles, notably the game of Hex ^{[7]} and Conway's Game of Life ^{[8]}.

## Contents

# Selected Publications

^{[9]} ^{[10]}

## 1950 ...

- Martin Gardner (
**1952**).*In the Name of Science: An Entertaining Survey of the High Priests and Cultists of Science, Past and Present*. Putnam, in 1957 republished as*Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science*. - Martin Gardner (
**1956**).*Mathematics, Magic, and Mystery*. Dover Publications - Martin Gardner (
**1957**).*Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science*. Dover Publications, ISBN 978-0-486-20394-2 - Martin Gardner (
**1958, 1983**).*Logic Machines and Diagrams*. McGraw-Hill, University of Chicago Press - Martin Gardner (
**1959**).*The Scientific American Book of Mathematical Puzzles and Diversions*. Simon & Schuster

- Martin Gardner (
**1959**).*The Game of Hex*. pages 73-83 » Hex

## 1960 ...

- Martin Gardner (
**1960**).*The Annotated Alice*. Clarkson Potter - Martin Gardner (
**1962, 1974**).*The Annotated Snark*. Simon & Schuster - Martin Gardner (
**1964, 1969, 1979, 1990, 2005**).*The Ambidextrous Universe*. Penguin Books - Martin Gardner (
**1967**).*Problems that are Built on the Knight's Tour in Chess*. Scientific American, Vol. 130 - Martin Gardner (
**1969, 1991**).*The Unexpected Hanging and Other Mathematical Diversions*. Simon & Schuster, University Of Chicago Press.^{[11]}

## 1970 ...

- Martin Gardner (
**1970**).*Mathematical Games - The fantastic combinations of John Conway's new solitaire game "life"*. Scientific American, Vol. 223, pp. 120-123. - Martin Gardner (
**1973**).*Mathematical Games: How to Turn a Chessboard into a Computer to Calculate with Negabinary Numbers*. Scientific American, Vol. 228, No. 4^{[12]} - Martin Gardner (
**1975**).*Mathematical Carnival*. Vintage Books - Martin Gardner (
**1977**).*Mathematical Magic Show*. Vintage Books - Martin Gardner (
**1978**).*Aha! Insight*. W.H. Freeman & Company - Martin Gardner (
**1979**).*Mathematical Circus*. Vintage Books - Martin Gardner (
**1979**).*Chess Problems on a Higher Plane, Including Mirror Images, Rotations and the Superqueen*. Scientific American, Vol. 270

## 1980 ...

- Martin Gardner (
**1982**).*Aha! Gotcha: Paradoxes to Puzzle and Delight*. W.H. Freeman & Company - Martin Gardner (
**1983**).*Baffling Brainteasers*. Davis Publications

## 1990 ...

- Lee Sallows, Martin Gardner, Richard K. Guy, Donald Knuth (
**1991**).*Serial Isogons of 90 Degrees*. Mathematics Magazine, Vol. 64, No. 5 - Martin Gardner (
**1994**).*My Best Mathematical and Logic Puzzles*. Dover Publications - Martin Gardner (
**1996**).*The Universe in a Handkerchief: Lewis Carroll's Mathematical Recreations, Games, Puzzles, and Word Plays*. Springer-Verlag - Martin Gardner (
**1999**).*The Annotated Alice: The Definitive Edition*. W. W. Norton & Company

## 2000 ...

- Martin Gardner (
**2001**).*The Colossal Book of Mathematics - : Classic Puzzles, Paradoxes, and Problems*. W. W. Norton & Company - Martin Gardner (
**2004**).*Are Universes Thicker Than Blackberries*? W. W. Norton & Company - Martin Gardner (
**2006**).*The Annotated Hunting of the Snark*. W. W. Norton & Company

## 2010 ...

- Martin Gardner, Ken Jennings (
**2010**).*The Colossal Book of Wordplay*. Sterling Publishing, Puzzlewright Press - Mehdi Mhalla, Frédéric Prost (
**2013**).*Gardner’s Minichess Variant is Solved*. ICGA Journal, Vol. 36, No. 4 - Martin Gardner (
**2014**).*Knots and Borromean Rings, Rep-Tiles, and Eight Queens: Martin Gardner’s Unexpected Hanging*. The Mathematical Association of America / Cambridge University Press^{[13]}

# External Links

- Martin Gardner from Wikipedia
- List of Martin Gardner Mathematical Games columns from Wikipedia
- Martin Gardner Home Site
- Gathering 4 Gardner Foundation | the aha moment
- The Mathematical Gardner Homepage
- Profile: Martin Gardner, the Mathematical Gamester (1914-2010) - Scientific American by Philip Yam, May 22, 2010
- Martin Gardner: A Major Shaping Force in My Life - Scientific American by Douglas Hofstadter, May 22, 2010

# References

- ↑ Details: Martin Gardner, MFO Photo by Konrad Jacobs, Erlangen, Martin Gardner from Wikipedia
- ↑ Martin Gardner from Wikipedia
- ↑ Index to Mathematical Games
- ↑ Mehdi Mhalla, Frédéric Prost (
**2013**).*Gardner’s Minichess Variant is Solved*. ICGA Journal, Vol. 36, No. 4 - ↑ Gardner's minichess solved by BB+, OpenChess Forum, August 29, 2013
- ↑ Martin Gardner (
**1969, 1991**).*The Unexpected Hanging and Other Mathematical Diversions*. Simon & Schuster, University Of Chicago Press, Chapter 8: A Matchbox Game-Learning Machine - ↑ Martin Gardner (
**1959**).*The Game of Hex*. in*The Scientific American Book of Mathematical Puzzles and Diversions*. pp 73-83.Simon & Schuster - ↑ Martin Gardner (
**1970**).*Mathematical Games - The fantastic combinations of John Conway's new solitaire game "life"*. Scientific American, Vol. 223, pp. 120-123. - ↑ Martin Gardner bibliography
- ↑ Martin Gardner's Puzzle Books
- ↑ Unexpected hanging paradox from Wikipedia
- ↑ Negative base from Wikipedia
- ↑ Borromean rings from Wikipedia