Brute Force (Program)

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Brute Force Issue 1 [1]

Brute Force,
a chess program by Louis Kessler that participated in the 8th and 9th North American Computer Chess Championships in 1977 and 1978. Brute Force was a Tech like program, including such features of an iterative alpha-beta routine, a quiescence routine using swap-off values, and an evaluation function based on the opponent's mobility [2]. At the 9th NACCC, it suffered from an "en passant bug" twice [3], which turned out a wrong implementation due to Kessler's misinterpretation of the rules [4].

Selected Games

ACM 1977, round 4, Brute Force - 8080 Chess

[Event "ACM 1977"]
[Site "Seattle USA"]
[Date "1977.10.17"]
[Round "4"]
[White "Brute Force"]
[Black "8080 Chess"]
[Result "1-0"]

1.d4 d5 2.Nc3 Nc6 3.Bf4 Nf6 4.Nb5 e5 5.Bxe5 Bb4+ 6.c3 Nxe5 7.dxe5 Bxc3+ 8.Nxc3 Ne4 
9.Nxe4 dxe4 10.Qa4+ Bd7 11.Qxe4 b5 12.g4 O-O 13.Bg2 c6 14.h4 a5 15.O-O-O Ra6 16.Qd4 
f5 17.Qxd7 Qxd7 18.Rxd7 fxg4 19.Rd6 Rxf2 20.Bxc6 Rf5 21.Bd5+ Kf8 22.Rxa6 Rxe5 23.e4 
a4 24.Rb6 g5 25.hxg5 Kg7 26.Rb7+ Kg6 27.Rhxh7 Kxg5 28.Rxb5 Kf4 29.Ra5 a3 30.Rf7+ Ke3
31.Rxa3+ Kd4 32.Rg7 Kc5 33.Rxg4 Kd6 34.Ra6+ Kc5 35.Nf3 Re7 36.Rc6+ Kb4 37.e5+ Kb5 
38.Nd4+ Ka5 39.Nb3+ 1-0

See also

External Links

Chess Program




  1. "Brute Force Issue 1", Marvel Comic edited by Tom DeFalco, August 1990, Cover Image from 80 Page Giant: It Came From the Dollar Bin: Brute Force by Trixter, July 10, 2012
  2. David Levy (1978). ACM '78. ICCA Newsletter, Vol. 1, No. 1
  3. Pech für den Weltmeister?, February 02, 1979, Computerwoche 5/1979 (German)
  4. Quote by Louis Kessler from A Memorial to BRUTE FORCE: As far as the en passant bug goes, it turns out this was my own misinterpretation of the rules. I read that "The en passant capture must be done on the very next turn, or the right to do so is lost”. I had interpreted that as losing the right to do any en passant for the remainder of the game, not just for that one specific en passant. My personal lack of experience in tournament chess led to that, and it cost me.
  5. Chess In The Cinema - Chess scenes from the movie Brute Force (Burt Lancaster)

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