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Georgy Adelson-Velsky

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Official Information
=Computer Chess=
Since the late 50s, at Kronrod's [[Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics]], Georgy Adelson-Velsky worked along with Kronrod, [[Alexander Brudno]], [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bongard_problem Mikhail Bongard], Evgenii Landis, [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolay_Konstantinov Nikolay Konstantinov], [[Vladimir Arlazarov]] et al. on heuristic and game programming, where they elaborated on the foundations of computer chess. Since [[Timeline#19631913|19631961]] <ref>[http://www.computer-museum.ru/games/donchess.htm История компьютерных игр. Виртуальный компьютерный музей. Англо-Русский компьютерный словарь. Вычисления в докомпьютерную эпоху. Технологии. Компьютерные игры. История развития электросвязи. История развития ПО. История вычислительной техники в России и за рубежом] from the [[Russian Virtual Computer Museum]]</ref> at ITEP, Georgy Adelson-Velsky co-developed the [[ITEP Chess Program]], along with [[Vladimir Arlazarov]], [[Anatoly Uskov]] and [[Alexander Zhivotovsky]], advised by Russian chess master [[Alexander Bitman]] and three-time world champion [[Mikhail Botvinnik]] <ref>[http://www.computerhistory.org/chess/full_record.php?iid=stl-430b9bbdb9817 International Grandmaster and World Champion Mikhail Botvinnik in Moscow], 1980, Gift of [[Monroe Newborn]], "[[Mikhail Botvinnik|Botvinnik]] served as a consultant to Soviet computer chess developers who developed an early program at [[Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics|ITEP]] which won a [[Stanford-ITEP Match|correspondence chess match]] against a [[Stanford University]] [[Kotok-McCarthy-Program|chess program]] led by [[John McCarthy]] in 1967. Later he advised the team that created the chess program [[Kaissa]] at [[Institute of Control Sciences|Moscow’s Institute for Control Science]]"</ref>. At the end of 1966 a [[Stanford-ITEP Match|four game match]] began between the [[Kotok-McCarthy-Program]], running on a [[IBM 7090]] computer, and the [[ITEP Chess Program]] on a Soviet [[M-2]] <ref>[http://www.computer-museum.ru/english/m2.htm The Fast Universal Digital Computer M-2] from the [[Russian Virtual Computer Museum20]]</ref> computer. The match played over nine months was won 3-1 by the ITEP program. In 1971, along with [[Mikhail Donskoy]] and [[Vladimir Arlazarov]], Georgy Adelson-Velsky became primary author of [[Kaissa]], winner of the [[WCCC 1974|first computer chess championship]] 1974 in Stockholm.
=Photos=
[[File:AdelsonVelskyMcCarthy.jpg|none|border|text-bottom|560px]]
Georgy Adelson-Velsky and [[John McCarthy]] playing chess, Soviet-American computer science conference, [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urgench Urgench], 1979 (?) <ref>[httphttps://www.forevermissed.com/georgy-m-adelson-velsky/gallery/photos#|gallery%2Fphotos |photo|350356 Photos of Georgy M Adelson-Velsky (1922 - 2014) - ForeverMissed.com], shared by: [http://iitp.ru/en/users/189.htm Семен Карпенко], June 01, 2014</ref>
[[File:AdelsonVelsky.jpg|none|border|text-bottom|560px]]
=Quotes=
==Official Information==
by [[Mikhail Donskoy]] (1999) on [[Kaissa]] <ref>[httphttps://www.computer-museum.ru/histsoftgames/kaissa1.htm История “Каиссы” Михаил Донской] from [[Russian Virtual Computer Museum]] (no longer available) translated with the help of [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Babel_Fish_%28website%29 Babel Fish] and [http://www.online-translator.com/text_Translation.aspx promt translator]</ref>
Georgy Adelson-Velsky - one of the first Soviet programmers (together with [[Alexander Kronrod]], [[Alexander Brudno]], [[Mathematician#Landis|Evgenii Landis]] and others). He was occupied by the programs, connected with [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_physics nuclear physics] at [[Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics|ITEP]], where he devised many algorithms which became classical. Especially the equilibrium binary trees, which in the entire world are called [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AVL_tree AVL trees] after the names of the authors - Adelson-Velsky and Landis. After short-term teaching at [[Moscow State University|MGU]] he worked at IPU and VNIISI (All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Sanitary Testing) on discrete algorithms, [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_planning_and_design network planning] and [[Artificial Intelligence|artificial intelligence]]. He now lives in Israel and works at [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technion_%E2%80%93_Israel_Institute_of_Technology Technion] on [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NP_%28complexity%29 NP problems of complete tasks].
Quotes by [[Mikhail Donskoy]] on the [[Kaissa#HistoryofKaissa|History of Kaissa]] <ref>[http://adamant1.fromru.com/kaissa.html "Каисса" - Историю программы рассказывает один из ее создателей Михаил Донской] - [http://translate.google.com/translate?sl=ru&tl=en&js=n&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UTF-8&u=http%3A%2F%2Fadamant1.fromru.com%2Fkaissa.html Kaissa] by [[Mikhail Donskoy]], translated by [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_Translate Google Translate]</ref>
[[Timeline#1963|1963]] (1961) - beginning of the works on the first Soviet chess program in the [[Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics]] (ITEP) in the laboratory under [[Alexander Kronrod|Alexander Kronrod's]] management. The first authors - Georgy Adelson-Velsky, [[Vladimir Arlazarov]], [[Alexander Bitman]], [[Alexander Zhivotovsky]], [[Anatoly Uskov]], A. Leman, M. Rozenfeld.
[[Timeline#1967|1967]] - first international match of chess programs. Competed the program ITEP and the program of [[Stanford University]], made under the management [[John McCarthy]]. McCarthy is famous fact that in 1952 on the beach in San Diego together with [[Alan Turing]] devised the word combination of "Artificial Intelligence", and fact that he is the author of the language Lisp - the first programming language, specially created for the tasks in the problems of artificial intelligence. Regulations of the [[Stanford-ITEP Match|match]] - four games. From the side of Stanford played one and the same version, from the ITEP side - two, which were being distinguished by the depth of search. Moves were transferred by the telegraph once a week (this to those- that times from "yadernogo" institute!). Match continued entire year and ended with the score the 3:1 in favor of ITEP.
[[Timeline#1969|1969]] (1968) - a [https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9F%D0%B8%D1%81%D1%8C%D0%BC%D0%BE_%D0%B4%D0%B5%D0%B2%D1%8F%D0%BD%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B0_%D0%B4%D0%B5%D0%B2%D1%8F%D1%82%D0%B8 letter ] in support of mathematician [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Esenin-Volpin Esenin-Volpin] (son of [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sergei_Yesenin poet]) and his incorrect psychiatric confinement, among others signed by [[Alexander Kronrod]] and Georgy Adelson-Velsky. As a result, the laboratory was disbanded and its major portion under [[Vladimir Arlazarov|Vladimir Arlazarov's]] management, but without Kronrod, after a certain time he settled in [[Institute of Control Sciences]] (ICF).
[[Timeline#1970|1970]] - the mechanic mathematical department of [[Moscow State University|MGU]] finished the entire group of the students of [[Alexander Kronrod]] and Georgy Adelson-Velsky, that was being occupied in the famous seminar for discrete algorithms. Sums of the seminar:
=See also=
* [[ITEP Chess Program#Video|ITEP Chess Program Video, 1967]]
* [[Kaissa#HistoryofKaissa|History of Kaissa]]
<ref>[http://www.mathnet.ru/php/person.phtml?option_lang=rus&personid=24726 Персоналии: Адельсон-Вельский Г М]</ref> <ref>[https://zbmath.org/authors/?q=ai:adelson-velsky.george-m zbMATH - Adelson-Velsky, George M.]</ref> <ref>[http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/pers/hd/a/Adelson=Velsky:Georgii_M=.html dblp: Georgii M. Adelson-Velsky]</ref> <ref>[http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/pers/hd/a/Adelson=Velskiy:G=_M=.html dblp: G. M. Adelson-Velskiy]</ref>
==1945 ...==
* [[Georgy Adelson-Velsky]], [[Alexander Kronrod]] ('''1945'''). ''On a direct proof of the analyticity of a monigenic function''. (Russian) [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proceedings_of_the_USSR_Academy_of_Sciences Doklady Akademii Nauk], Vol. 50* [[Georgy Adelson-Velsky]], [[Alexander Kronrod]] ('''1945'''). ''On the level of continuous fuctions possessing partial derivatives''. (Russian) [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proceedings_of_the_USSR_Academy_of_Sciences Doklady Akademii Nauk], Vol. 50* [[Georgy Adelson-Velsky]], [[Alexander Kronrod]] ('''1945'''). ''On the maximum principle for an elliptic system''. (Russian) [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proceedings_of_the_USSR_Academy_of_Sciences Doklady Akademii Nauk], Vol. 50
==1950 ...==
* [[Georgy Adelson-Velsky]], [http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/obituary-yuli-shreider-1197283.html Yuli A. Shreider] ('''1957'''). ''[http://www.mathnet.ru/php/archive.phtml?wshow=paper&jrnid=rm&paperid=7727&option_lang=eng The Banach mean on groups]''. [http://iopscience.iop.org/0036-0279/ Uspekhi Matematicheskikh Nauk], Vol. 12, No. 6
==1960 ...==
* [[Georgy Adelson-Velsky]], [[Mathematician#Landis|Evgenii Landis]] ('''1962'''). ''[http://www.mathnet.ru/php/archive.phtml?wshow=paper&jrnid=dan&paperid=26964&option_lang=eng An algorithm for the organization of information]''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proceedings_of_the_USSR_Academy_of_Sciences Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences], 146: 263–266. (Russian) English translation by Myron J. Ricci in [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proceedings_of_the_USSR_Academy_of_Sciences#Soviet_Mathematics_-_Doklady Soviet Mathematics Doklady], No. 3 <ref>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AVL_tree AVL tree from Wikipedia]</ref>* [[Georgy Adelson-Velsky]], [[Alexander Brudno]], [[Alexander Kronrod]], Pavel T. Reznikovsky ('''1964'''). ''[http://www.mathnet.ru/php/archive.phtml?wshow=paper&jrnid=dan&paperid=29078&option_lang=eng A system of commands for a three-address machine without address register]''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proceedings_of_the_USSR_Academy_of_Sciences Doklady Akademii Nauk], Vol. 154, No. 3
==1970 ...==
* [[Georgy Adelson-Velsky]], [[Vladimir Arlazarov]], [[Alexander Bitman]], [[Alexander Zhivotovsky]], [[Anatoly Uskov]] ('''1970'''). ''[http://iopscience.iop.org/0036-0279/25/2/R07 Programming a Computer to Play Chess]''. [http://iopscience.iop.org/0036-0279/25/2 Russian Mathematical Surveys, Vol. 25], pp. 221-262.* [[Georgy Adelson-Velsky]], [[Vladimir Arlazarov]], [[Mikhail Donskoy]] ('''1975'''). ''Some Methods of Controlling the Tree Search in Chess Programs''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_Intelligence_%28journal%29 Artificial Intelligence], Vol. 6, No. 4, Reprinted ('''1988''') in [[Computer Chess Compendium]] <ref>[https://www.stmintz.com/ccc/index.php?id=19469 Method of Analogies??] by Bruce Cleaver, [[CCC]], May 29, 1998</ref>* [[Georgy Adelson-Velsky]], [[Vladimir Arlazarov]], [[Mikhail Donskoy]] ('''1977'''). ''On the Structure of an Important Class of Exhaustive Problems and Methods of Search Reduction for them''. [[Advances in Computer Chess 1]]* [[Georgy Adelson-Velsky]], [[Vladimir Arlazarov]], [[Mikhail Donskoy]] ('''1979'''). ''Algorithms of adaptive search''. [http://www.doc.ic.ac.uk/~shm/MI/mi9.html Machine Intelligence 9] (eds. [[Jean Hayes Michie]], [[Donald Michie]] and L.I. Mikulich), pp. 373-384. Ellis Horwood, Chichester
==1980 ...==
* [[Georgy Adelson-Velsky]], [http://www.mathnet.ru/php/person.phtml?option_lang=eng&personid=79866 V. P. Akimov], [[Vladimir Arlazarov]] ('''1981'''). ''[http://www.mathnet.ru/php/archive.phtml?wshow=paper&jrnid=at&paperid=7183&option_lang=eng On a probabilistic approach tо verification of the Shannon game model]''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automation_and_Remote_Control Avtomatika i Telemekhanika], No. 9, 138–144
* Г.М. Адельсон-Вельский, [[Vladimir Arlazarov|В.Л. Арлазаров]], [[Alexander Bitman|А.Р. Битман]], [[Mikhail Donskoy|М.В. Донской]] ('''1983'''). ''Машина играет в шахматы''. [http://genes1s.net/files/kaissa.pdf pdf] (book with detailed explanations of Kaissa algorithms, language: Russian)
* [[Georgy Adelson-Velsky]], [http://www.mathnet.ru/php/person.phtml?option_lang=eng&personid=79866|V. P. Akimov]] ('''1987'''). ''[http://www.mathnet.ru/php/archive.phtml?wshow=paper&jrnid=at&paperid=4367&option_lang=eng On validity of Shannon's game model]''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Automation_and_Remote_Control Avtomatika i Telemekhanika], No. 1, 171–173* [[Georgy Adelson-Velsky]], [[Vladimir Arlazarov]], [[Mikhail Donskoy]] ('''1988'''). ''[https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4612-3796-9 Algorithms for Games]''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Springer_Science%2BBusiness_Media Springer], New York, NY. ISBN 3-540-96629-3. [http://www.amazon.com/Algorithms-Games-Georgy-M-Adelson-Velsky/dp/0387966293 amazon.com]
==2000 ...==
* [[Georgy Adelson-Velsky]], [http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/pers/hd/l/Levner:Eugene Eugene Levner] ('''2002'''). ''[https://zbmath.org/?q=an:02228259 Project scheduling in AND-OR graphs: a generalization of Dijkstra’s algorithm]''. [http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/db/journals/mor/mor27.html#Adelson-VelskyL02 Mathematics of Operations Research], Vol. 27, No. 3
=Forum Posts=
* [http://www.forevermissed.com/georgy-m-adelson-velsky/gallery#gallery%2Fphotos Photos of Georgy M Adelson-Velsky (1922 - 2014) - ForeverMissed.com]
* [https://www.facebook.com/AdelsonVelsky Памяти Г. М. Адельсон-Вельского | Facebook]
* [http://www.mathnet.ru/php/archive.phtml?wshow=paper&jrnid=rm&paperid=9605&option_lang=eng Georgy Maksimovich Adelson-Velsky (obituary)]
* [http://www.elektron2000.com/dobruskin_fomenko_0096.html Истинно свободный человек]
* [https://www.computer-museum.ru/articles/galglory/3991/ Чтобы знали и помнили!]
* Адельсон Вельский Г.М. рассказывает 2002 год, [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YouTube YouTube] Video
: {{#evu:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cE4Zb9wWf7g|alignment=left|valignment=top}}
'''[[People|Up one level]]'''
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