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Home * Hardware * x86-64

Quad-core AMD Opteron processor [1]

x86-64 or x64,
an 64-bit x86-extension, designed by AMD as Hammer- or K8 architecture with Athlon 64 and Opteron cpus. It has been cloned by Intel under the name EMT64 and later Intel 64. Beside 64-bit general purpose extensions, x86-64 supports MMX-, x87- as well as the 128-bit SSE- and SSE2-instruction sets. According to the CPUID-instructions, further SIMD Streamig Extensions, such as SSE3, SSSE3 (Intel only), SSE4 (Core2, K10), AVX, AVX2 and AVX-512, and AMD's 3DNow!, Enhanced 3DNow! and XOP.

Register File

x86-64 doubles the number of x86 general purpose- and XMM registers.

General Purpose

The 16 general purpose registers may be treated as 64 bit Quad Word (bitboard), 32 bit Double Word, 16 bit Word and high (partly), low Byte [2]:

64 32 16 8 high 8 low Purpose
RAX EAX AX AH AL GP, Accumulator
RBX EBX BX BH BL GP, Index Register
RCX ECX CX CH CL GP, Counter, variable shift, rotate via CL
RDX EDX DX DH DL GP, high Accumulator mul/div
RSI ESI SI - - GP, Source Index
RDI EDI DI - - GP, Destination Index
RSP ESP SP - - Stack Pointer
RBP EBP BP - - GP, Base Pointer
R08 R08D R08W - R08B GP
R.. R..D R..W - R..B GP
R15 R15D R15W - R15B GP


Eight 64-bit MMX-Registers: MM0 - MM7. Treated as Double, Quad Word or vector of two Floats, Double Words, vector if four Words or eight Bytes.


Sixteen 128-bit XMM-Registers: XMM0 - XMM15. Treated as vector of two Doubles or Quad Words, as vector of four Floats or Double Words, and as vector of eight Words or 16 Bytes.


Intel Sandy Bridge and AMD Bulldozer Sixteen 256-bit YMM-Registers: YMM0 - YMM15 (shared by XMM as lower half). Treated as vector of four Doubles or Quad Words, as vector of eight Floats or Double Words, and as vector of 15 Words or 32 Bytes.


Intel Xeon Phi (2015) 32 512-bit ZMM-Registers: ZMM0 - ZMM31 Eight vector mask registers


Useful instructions for bitboard-applications are by default not supported by high-level programming languages. Available through (inline) Assembly or compiler intrinsics of various C-Compilers [3].

General Purpose

x86-64 Instructions, C-Intrinsic reference from x64 (amd64) Intrinsics List | Microsoft Docs

Mnemonic Description C-Intrinsic Remark
bsf bit scan forward _BitScanForward64
bsr bit scan reverse _BitScanReverse64
bswap byte swap _byteswap_uint64
bt bit test _bittest64
btc bit test and complement _bittestandcomplement64
btr bit test and reset _bittestandreset64
bts bit test and set _bittestandset64
cpuid cpuid _cpuid cpuid
imul signed multiplication _mulh, _mul128
lzcnt leading zero count _lzcnt16, _lzcnt, _lzcnt64 cpuid, SSE4a
mul unsigned multiplication _umulh, _umul128
popcnt population count _popcnt16, _popcnt, _popcnt64 cpuid, SSE4.2, SSE4a
rdtsc read performance counter _rdtsc
rol, ror rotate left, right _rotl, _rotl64, _rotr, _rotr64



x86 and x86-64 - SSE2 Instructions, C-Intrinsic reference from Intel Intrinsics Guide

Mnemonic Description C-Intrinsic
bitwise logical return parameter
pand packed and, r := a & b _m128i _mm_and_si128 (_m128i a, _m128i b)
pandn packed and not, r := ~a & b _m128i _mm_andnot_si128 (_m128i a, _m128i b)
por packed or, r := a | b _m128i _mm_or_si128 (_m128i a, _m128i b)
pxor packed xor, r:= a ^ b _m128i _mm_xor_si128 (_m128i a, _m128i b)
quad word shifts return parameter
psrlq packed shift right logical quad _m128i _mm_srl_epi64 (_m128i a, _m128i cnt)
immediate _m128i _mm_srli_epi64 (_m128i a, int cnt)
psllq packed shift left logical quad _m128i _mm_sll_epi64 (_m128i a, _m128i cnt)
immediate _m128i _mm_slli_epi64 (_m128i a, int cnt)
arithmetical return parameter
paddb packed add bytes _m128i _mm_add_epi8 (_m128i a, _m128i b)
psubb packed subtract bytes _m128i _mm_sub_epi8 (_m128i a, _m128i b)
psadbw packed sum of absolute differences
of bytes into a word
_m128i _mm_sad_epu8 (_m128i a, _m128i b)
pmaxsw packed maximum signed words _m128i _mm_max_epi16 (_m128i a, _m128i b)
pmaxub packed maximum unsigned bytes _m128i _mm_max_epu8 (_m128i a, _m128i b)
pminsw packed minimum signed words _m128i _mm_min_epi16 (_m128i a, _m128i b)
pminub packed minimum unsigned bytes _m128i _mm_min_epu8 (_m128i a, _m128i b)
pcmpeqb packed compare equal bytes _m128i _mm_cmpeq_epi8 (_m128i a, _m128i b)
pmullw packed multiply mow signed (unsigned) word _m128i _mm_mullo_epi16 (_m128i a, _m128i b)
pmulhw packed multiply high signed word _m128i _mm_mulhi_epi16 (_m128i a, _m128i b)
pmulhuw packed multiply high unsigned word _m128i _mm_mulhi_epu16 (_m128i a, _m128i b)
pmaddwd packed multiply words and add doublewords _m128 _mm_madd_epi16 (_m128i a, _m128i b)
unpack, shuffle return parameter
punpcklbw unpack and interleave low bytes
gGhHfFeE:dDcCbBaA :=
xxxxxxxx:GHFEDCBA #
_m128i _mm_unpacklo_epi8 (_m128i A, _m128i a)
punpckhbw unpack and interleave high bytes
gGhHfFeE:dDcCbBaA :=
GHFEDCBA:xxxxxxxx #
_m128i _mm_unpackhi_epi8 (_m128i A, _m128i a)
punpcklwd unpack and interleave low words
dDcC:bBaA := xxxx:DCBA#xxxx:dcba
_m128i _mm_unpacklo_epi16 (_m128i A, _m128i a)
punpckhwd unpack and interleave high words
dDcC:bBaA := DCBA:xxxx#dcba:xxxx
_m128i _mm_unpackhi_epi16 (_m128i A, _m128i a)
punpckldq unpack and interleave low doublewords
bB:aA := xx:BA # xx:ba
_m128i _mm_unpacklo_epi32 (_m128i A, _m128i a)
punpckhdq unpack and interleave high doublewords
bB:aA := BA:xx # ba:xx
_m128i _mm_unpackhi_epi32 (_m128i A, _m128i a)
punpcklqdq unpack and interleave low quadwords
a:A := x:A # x:a
_m128i _mm_unpacklo_epi64 (_m128i A, _m128i a)
punpckhqdq unpack and interleave high quadwords
a:A := A:x # a:x
_m128i _mm_unpackhi_epi64 (_m128i A, _m128i a)
pshuflw packed shuffle low words _m128i _mm_shufflelo_epi16 (_m128i a, int imm)
pshufhw packed shuffle high words _m128i _mm_shufflehi_epi16 (_m128i a, int imm)
pshufd packed shuffle doublewords _m128i _mm_shuffle_epi32 (_m128i a, int imm)
load, store, moves return parameter
movdqa move aligned double quadword
xmm := *p
_m128i _mm_load_si128 (_m128i const *p)
movdqu move unaligned double quadword
xmm := *p
_m128i _mm_loadu_si128 (_m128i const*p)
movdqa move aligned double quadword
*p := xmm
void _mm_store_si128 (_m128i *p, _m128i a)
movdqu move unaligned double quadword
*p := xmm
void _mm_storeu_si128 (_m128i *p, _m128i a)
movq move quadword, xmm := gp64 _m128i _mm_cvtsi64_si128 (_int64 a)
movq move quadword, gp64 := xmm _int64 _mm_cvtsi128_si64 (_m128i a)
movd move double word or quadword
xmm := gp64
_m128i _mm_cvtsi64x_si128 (_int64 value)
movd move doubleword, xmm := gp32 _m128i _mm_cvtsi32_si128 (int a)
movd move doubleword, gp32 := xmm int _mm_cvtsi128_si32 (_m128i a)
pextrw extract packed word, gp16 := xmm[i] int _mm_extract_epi16 (_m128i a, int imm)
pinsrw packed insert word, xmm[i] := gp16 _m128i _mm_insert_epi16 (_m128i a, int b, int imm)
pmovmskb packed move mask byte,
gp32 := 16 sign-bits(xmm)
int _mm_movemask_epi (_m128i a)
cache support return parameter
prefetch void _mm_prefetch (char const* p , int i)


See also



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External Links



Instruction Sets

AVX-512 from Wikipedia » AVX-512

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