Difference between revisions of "The Bernstein Chess Program"

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=Shannon Type B=
 
=Shannon Type B=
The Bernstein Chess Program was the prototype of a selective forward pruning, [[Type B Strategy|Shannon Type B]] program. On an [[IBM 704]], one of the last vacuum tube computers, it searched four [[Ply|plies]] [[Minimax|minimax]] in around 8 minutes, considering seven most plausible moves from each position and [[Evaluation|evaluated]] [[Material|material]], [[Mobility|mobility]], [[Square Control|area control]] and [[King Safety|king defense]] <ref>[[Alex Bernstein]], [[Michael de V. Roberts]] ('''1958'''). ''[http://www.computerhistory.org/chess/full_record.php?iid=doc-431614f690f16 Computer vs. Chess-Player]''. [[Scientific American]], Vol. 198, pp. 96-105. [http://archive.computerhistory.org/projects/chess/related_materials/text/2-2.Computer_V_ChessPlayer.Bernstein_Roberts.Scientific_American.June-1958/Computer_V_ChessPlayer.Bernstein_Roberts.Scientific_American.June-1958.062303059.sm.pdf pdf] from [[The Computer History Museum]], reprinted in [[Computer Chess Compendium]] by [[David Levy]]</ref>.  
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The Bernstein Chess Program was the prototype of a selective forward pruning, [[Type B Strategy|Shannon Type B]] program. On an [[IBM 704]], one of the last vacuum tube computers, it searched four [[Ply|plies]] [[Minimax|minimax]] in around 8 minutes, considering seven most plausible moves from each position and [[Evaluation|evaluated]] [[Material|material]], [[Mobility|mobility]], [[Square Control|area control]] and [[King Safety|king defense]] <ref>[[Alex Bernstein]], [[Michael de V. Roberts]] ('''1958'''). ''[http://www.computerhistory.org/chess/full_record.php?iid=doc-431614f690f16 Computer vs. Chess-Player]''. [[Scientific American]], Vol. 198, reprinted '''1988''' in [[Computer Chess Compendium]]</ref>.  
  
 
=Publications=  
 
=Publications=  
* [[Alex Bernstein]], [[Michael de V. Roberts]] ('''1958'''). ''[http://www.computerhistory.org/chess/full_record.php?iid=doc-431614f690f16 Computer vs. Chess-Player]''. [[Scientific American]], Vol. 198, pp. 96-105. [http://archive.computerhistory.org/projects/chess/related_materials/text/2-2.Computer_V_ChessPlayer.Bernstein_Roberts.Scientific_American.June-1958/Computer_V_ChessPlayer.Bernstein_Roberts.Scientific_American.June-1958.062303059.sm.pdf pdf] from [[The Computer History Museum]], reprinted 1988 in [[Computer Chess Compendium]]
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<ref>hosted by [[The Computer History Museum]]</ref>
* [[Alex Bernstein ]] ('''1958'''). ''[http://www.computerhistory.org/chess/full_record.php?iid=doc-4316153963418 A Chess Playing Program for the IBM 704]''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chess_Review Chess Review] July 1958, [http://archive.computerhistory.org/projects/chess/related_materials/text/2-2.Chess_Review.A_Chess_Playing_Program_for_the_IBM_704.Bernstein.1958/Chess_Review.A_Chess_Playing_Program_for_the_IBM_704.Bernstein.July-1958.062303058.sm.pdf pdf] from [[The Computer History Museum]]
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* [[Alex Bernstein]], [[Michael de V. Roberts]] ('''1958'''). ''[http://www.computerhistory.org/chess/full_record.php?iid=doc-431614f690f16 Computer vs. Chess-Player]''. [[Scientific American]], Vol. 198, reprinted '''1988''' in [[Computer Chess Compendium]]
* [[Alex Bernstein]], [[Michael de V. Roberts]], [[Timothy Arbuckle]], [[Martin Belsky]] ('''1958'''). ''[http://www.computerhistory.org/chess/full_record.php?iid=doc-431e18a41d415 A chess playing program for the IBM 704]''. Proceedings of the 1958 Western Joint Computer Conference, pp. 157-159, Los Angeles, California. [http://archive.computerhistory.org/projects/chess/related_materials/text/2-2.A_Chess_Playing_Program_for_the_IBM_704.Bernstein_Roberts_Arbuckle_Belsky/A_Chess_Playing_Program_for_the_IBM_704.Bernstein_Roberts_Arbuckle_Belsky.062303011.pdf pdf] from [[The Computer History Museum]]
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* [[Alex Bernstein ]] ('''1958'''). ''[http://www.computerhistory.org/chess/full_record.php?iid=doc-4316153963418 A Chess Playing Program for the IBM 704]''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chess_Review Chess Review], July 1958
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* [[Alex Bernstein]], [[Michael de V. Roberts]], [[Timothy Arbuckle]], [[Martin Belsky]] ('''1958'''). ''[https://www.computerhistory.org/chess/doc-431e18a41d415/ A chess playing program for the IBM 704]''. Proceedings of the 1958 Western Joint Computer Conference
 
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Leiber Fritz Leiber] ('''1962'''). ''[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Leiber_bibliography#Short_stories The 64-Square Madhouse]''. [http://www.unz.org/Pub/WorldsIfSF-1962may-00064 Worlds of If] <ref>[http://www.talkchess.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=49858 Fritz Leiber's "The 64-Square Madhouse"] by [[Ian Osgood]], [[CCC]], October 28, 2013</ref>
 
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Leiber Fritz Leiber] ('''1962'''). ''[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Leiber_bibliography#Short_stories The 64-Square Madhouse]''. [http://www.unz.org/Pub/WorldsIfSF-1962may-00064 Worlds of If] <ref>[http://www.talkchess.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=49858 Fritz Leiber's "The 64-Square Madhouse"] by [[Ian Osgood]], [[CCC]], October 28, 2013</ref>
  
 
=External Links=  
 
=External Links=  
* [http://www.computerhistory.org/chess/search.php?more=&submitted=1&keywords=Bernstein&x=34&y=7&all=all&item_document=item_document&item_moving_image=item_moving_image&item_artifact=item_artifact&item_still_image=item_still_image&item_oral_history=item_oral_history&item_software=item_software The Bernstein Chess Program] from [[The Computer History Museum]]
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* [https://www.computerhistory.org/chess/search/?q=Alex+Bernstein Alex Bernstein] from [[The Computer History Museum]]
 
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20071221115817/http://classicchess.googlepages.com/Chess.htm Classic Computer Chess - ... The programs of yesteryear] by [[Carey Bloodworth|Carey]], hosted by the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Archive Internet Archive] <ref>[http://www.talkchess.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=56938&start=2 Re: Old programs CHAOS and USC] by [[Dann Corbit]], [[CCC]], July 11, 2015</ref>
 
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20071221115817/http://classicchess.googlepages.com/Chess.htm Classic Computer Chess - ... The programs of yesteryear] by [[Carey Bloodworth|Carey]], hosted by the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_Archive Internet Archive] <ref>[http://www.talkchess.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=56938&start=2 Re: Old programs CHAOS and USC] by [[Dann Corbit]], [[CCC]], July 11, 2015</ref>
 
* [http://www.gettyimages.de/search/2/image?phrase=IBM+704&editorialproducts=timelife&family=editorial Photos] by [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andreas_Feininger Andreas Feininger], [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Getty_Images Getty Images]
 
* [http://www.gettyimages.de/search/2/image?phrase=IBM+704&editorialproducts=timelife&family=editorial Photos] by [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andreas_Feininger Andreas Feininger], [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Getty_Images Getty Images]
 
* [http://www.research.ibm.com/deepblue/reference/html/i.3.html Chess Pieces - IBM Research] the [[Deep Blue]] site
 
* [http://www.research.ibm.com/deepblue/reference/html/i.3.html Chess Pieces - IBM Research] the [[Deep Blue]] site
* [http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/1958/11/29/runner-up-4 Runner-Up - The New Yorker - November 29, 1958]
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* [https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/1958/11/29/runner-up-4 Runner-Up - The New Yorker - November 29, 1958]
 
* Alex Bernstein: ''juega al ajedrez con un'' IBM 704 (Thinking Machines), [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YouTube YouTube] Video
 
* Alex Bernstein: ''juega al ajedrez con un'' IBM 704 (Thinking Machines), [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YouTube YouTube] Video
 
: {{#evu:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NUjiUR0ZH58|alignment=left|valignment=top}}
 
: {{#evu:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NUjiUR0ZH58|alignment=left|valignment=top}}

Revision as of 10:25, 7 June 2019

Home * Engines * The Bernstein Chess Program

The Bernstein Chess Program,
was the first complete chess program, developed in 1957 at Service Bureau Corporation, Madison & 59th Street, Manhattan, New York City [2], by chess player and programmer at IBM, Alex Bernstein with his colleagues Michael de V. Roberts, Timothy Arbuckle and Martin Belsky, supported by chess advisor Arthur Bisguier [3], who became IBM employee at that time and in 1957 international chess grandmaster, and supervised by Nathaniel Rochester [4].

Shannon Type B

The Bernstein Chess Program was the prototype of a selective forward pruning, Shannon Type B program. On an IBM 704, one of the last vacuum tube computers, it searched four plies minimax in around 8 minutes, considering seven most plausible moves from each position and evaluated material, mobility, area control and king defense [5].

Publications

[6]

External Links

References

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