Difference between revisions of "The Bernstein Chess Program"

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'''The Bernstein Chess Program''',<br/>
 
'''The Bernstein Chess Program''',<br/>
was the first complete chess program, developed around [[Timeline#1957|1957]] at [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service_Bureau_Corporation Service Bureau Corporation], [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madison_Avenue Madison] & [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/59th_Street_%28Manhattan%29 59th Street], [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manhattan Manhattan], [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_City New York City] <ref>[http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/1958/11/29/runner-up-4 Runner-Up - The New Yorker - November 29, 1958]</ref>, by chess player and programmer at [[IBM]], [[Alex Bernstein]] with his colleagues [[Michael de V. Roberts]], [[Timothy Arbuckle]] and [[Martin Belsky]], supported by chess advisor [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Bisguier Arthur Bisguier] <ref>[http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Bisguier Arthur Bisguier from Wikipedia.de] (German)</ref>, who became IBM employee at that time and in 1957 [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Grandmaster international chess grandmaster], and supervised by [[Nathaniel Rochester]] <ref>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nathaniel_Rochester_%28computer_scientist%29 Nathaniel Rochester (computer scientist) from Wikipedia]</ref>.  
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was the first complete chess program, developed around [[Timeline#1957|1957]] at [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service_Bureau_Corporation Service Bureau Corporation], [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madison_Avenue Madison] & [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/59th_Street_%28Manhattan%29 59th Street], [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manhattan Manhattan], [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_City New York City] <ref>[http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/1958/11/29/runner-up-4 Runner-Up - The New Yorker - November 29, 1958]</ref>, by chess player and programmer at [[IBM]], [[Alex Bernstein]] with his colleagues [[Michael de V. Roberts]], [[Timothy Arbuckle]] and [[Martin Belsky]], supported by chess advisor [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Bisguier Arthur Bisguier] <ref>[http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Bisguier Arthur Bisguier from Wikipedia.de] (German)</ref>, who became IBM employee at that time and in 1957 [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Grandmaster international chess grandmaster], and supervised by [[Nathaniel Rochester]] <ref>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nathaniel_Rochester_%28computer_scientist%29 Nathaniel Rochester (computer scientist) from Wikipedia]</ref>. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pamela_McCorduck Pamela McCorduck], who was married to [[Mathematician#JFTraub|Joseph F. Traub]], interviewed Alex Bernstein as published with several details given on the development of the program in her seminal book ''[[Artificial Intelligence#MachinesWhoThink|Machines Who Think]]'' <ref>[http://www.talkchess.com/forum3/viewtopic.php?f=2&t=70939&start=17 Re: The mystery of Alex Bernstein] by [[Sergei Markoff|Sergei S. Markoff]], [[CCC]], June 09, 2019</ref>.
  
 
=Quote=
 
=Quote=
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* [[Alex Bernstein]], [[Michael de V. Roberts]], [[Timothy Arbuckle]], [[Martin Belsky]] ('''1958'''). ''[https://www.computerhistory.org/chess/doc-431e18a41d415/ A chess playing program for the IBM 704]''. Proceedings of the 1958 Western Joint Computer Conference
 
* [[Alex Bernstein]], [[Michael de V. Roberts]], [[Timothy Arbuckle]], [[Martin Belsky]] ('''1958'''). ''[https://www.computerhistory.org/chess/doc-431e18a41d415/ A chess playing program for the IBM 704]''. Proceedings of the 1958 Western Joint Computer Conference
 
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Leiber Fritz Leiber] ('''1962'''). ''[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Leiber_bibliography#Short_stories The 64-Square Madhouse]''. [http://www.unz.org/Pub/WorldsIfSF-1962may-00064 Worlds of If] <ref>[http://www.talkchess.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=49858 Fritz Leiber's "The 64-Square Madhouse"] by [[Ian Osgood]], [[CCC]], October 28, 2013</ref>
 
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Leiber Fritz Leiber] ('''1962'''). ''[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fritz_Leiber_bibliography#Short_stories The 64-Square Madhouse]''. [http://www.unz.org/Pub/WorldsIfSF-1962may-00064 Worlds of If] <ref>[http://www.talkchess.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=49858 Fritz Leiber's "The 64-Square Madhouse"] by [[Ian Osgood]], [[CCC]], October 28, 2013</ref>
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* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pamela_McCorduck Pamela McCorduck] ('''1979'''). ''Machines Who Think''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W._H._Freeman_and_Company W. H. Freeman]
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* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pamela_McCorduck Pamela McCorduck] ('''2004'''). ''[[Artificial Intelligence#MachinesWhoThink|Machines Who Think: A Personal Inquiry into the History and Prospects of Artificial Intelligence]]''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_K_Peters A. K. Peters] (25th anniversary edition)
  
 
=External Links=  
 
=External Links=  

Revision as of 10:30, 9 June 2019

Home * Engines * The Bernstein Chess Program

The Bernstein Chess Program,
was the first complete chess program, developed around 1957 at Service Bureau Corporation, Madison & 59th Street, Manhattan, New York City [2], by chess player and programmer at IBM, Alex Bernstein with his colleagues Michael de V. Roberts, Timothy Arbuckle and Martin Belsky, supported by chess advisor Arthur Bisguier [3], who became IBM employee at that time and in 1957 international chess grandmaster, and supervised by Nathaniel Rochester [4]. Pamela McCorduck, who was married to Joseph F. Traub, interviewed Alex Bernstein as published with several details given on the development of the program in her seminal book Machines Who Think [5].

Quote

As mentioned by John McCarthy [6], the Bernstein Chess Program under construction was presented at the 1956 Dartmouth workshop:

Alex Bernstein of IBM presented his chess program under construction. My reaction was to invent and recommend to him alpha-beta pruning. He was unconvinced. 

Shannon Type B

The Bernstein Chess Program was the prototype of a selective forward pruning, Shannon Type B program. On an IBM 704, one of the last vacuum tube computers, it searched four plies minimax in around 8 minutes, considering seven most plausible moves from each position and evaluated material, mobility, area control and king defense [7].

Publications

[8]

External Links

References

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