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'''Alexander L'vovich Brudno''', (Александр Львович Брудно, January 10, 1918 – December 1, 2009)<br/>
was a Russian Jewish mathematician, computer scientist and computer chess pioneer. He received his Ph.D. on [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Real-valued_function Real functions] at [[Moscow State University]] under advisor [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dmitrii_Menshov Dmitrii Menshov] <ref>[http://genealogy.math.ndsu.nodak.edu/id.php?id=110377 The Mathematics Genealogy Project - Aleksandr Brudno]</ref>. Brudno independently discovered the [[Alpha-Beta|alpha-beta algorithm]], published [[Timeline#1963|1963]] in ''Problemy Kibernetiki'' <ref>[[Alexander Brudno]] ('''1963'''). ''Bounds and valuations for shortening the search of estimates''. Problemy Kibernetiki (10) 141–150 and Problems of Cybernetics (10) 225–241</ref> . The algorithm was implemented inside the [[ITEP Chess Program]]
<ref>[http://www.computer-museum.ru/english/m2.htm The Fast Universal Digital Computer M-2] from the [[Russian Virtual Computer Museum]]</ref>, which was written by [[Georgy Adelson-Velsky]] and others at [[Alexander Kronrod|Alexander Kronrod's]] laboratory at Moscow’s [[Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics]] (ITEF or '''ITEP''').
Brudno, also at ITEP at that time was a personal and likeminded friend of Kronrod <ref>[[Mathematician#Landis|Evgenii Landis]], [[Mathematician#Yaglom|Isaak Yaglom]] ('''1987'''). ''Remembering A.S. Kronrod''. ('''2002'''). Translation by [http://www.translatorscafe.com/cafe/member16949.htm Viola Brudno], Edited by [[Mathematician#WaGautschi|Walter Gautschi]], [https://www.cs.purdue.edu/homes/wxg/Kronrod.ps ps]</ref>. According to [[Monroe Newborn]], Alexander Brudno led the team that created the chess program [[Kaissa]] at Moscow’s [[Institute of Control Sciences]] <ref>[http://www.computerhistory.org/chess/full_record.php?iid=stl-430b9bbe49333 Brudno in Moscow], Photo and text by [[Monroe Newborn]] 1980, [http://www.computerhistory.org/chess/index.php History of Computer Chess] from [[The Computer History Museum]]</ref>. From 1991 until his death he lived in Israel <ref>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_Brudno Alexander Brudno from Wikipedia]</ref>.