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Home * History

History of Computer Chess - about ancient programs, computer chess pioneers and chess programming history.

Early Theorists

Famous Historic Computers and Programs

Computer - Program Author(s) Year Features
El Ajedrecista Leonardo Torres y Quevedo 1912 Electro-mechanical KRK Solver
Turochamp Alan Turing, David Champernowne 1948 "paper machine"
Machiavelli Donald Michie, Shaun Wylie 1948 "paper machine"
Nemes' Chess Machine Tihamér Nemes 1949 Design of electro-mechanical Mate-in-two Solver
Shannon's Chess Machine Claude Shannon 1950 Relay-based chess machine
Mate-in-two Dietrich Prinz 1951 Mate-in-two Solver
MANIAC I Stanislaw Ulam et al. 1956 Los Alamos Chess 6*6 board
The Bernstein Chess Program Alex Bernstein et al. 1958 Shannon Type B
NSS Chess Program Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, Herbert Simon 1958 Shannon Type B, Alpha-Beta approx.
Kotok-McCarthy-Program Alan Kotok, John McCarthy et al. 1962 Shannon Type B, Alpha-Beta
ITEP Chess Program Georgy Adelson-Velsky et al. 1963 Shannon Type A, Alpha-Beta
The Greenblatt Chess Program Richard Greenblatt et al. 1967 Shannon Type B, Transposition Table, Opening Book
The Technology Chess Program James Gillogly et al. 1970 Shannon Type A, Pondering
Kaissa Mikhail Donskoy et al. 1970 Shannon Type A, Bitboards, Null Move Pruning
Chess 4.0 David Slate, Larry Atkin 1973 Shannon Type A, Bitboards
Belle Ken Thompson, Joe Condon 1978 Shannon Type A, Chess Hardware
Cray Blitz Robert Hyatt, Albert Gower, Harry Nelson 1983 Shannon Type A, Dynamic Tree Splitting
HiTech Hans Berliner et al. 1985 Alpha-Beta or B*, Chess Hardware
Deep Thought Feng-hsiung Hsu et al. 1986 Shannon Type A, Chess Hardware

Famous Matches

The Machine



Pioneers in Computer Chess and Artificial Intelligence:

Chess Programming History


related to Computer Chess History:

See also


Jaap van den Herik (2018). Computer chess: From idea to DeepMind. ICGA Journal, Vol. 40, No. 3

Forum Posts

Re: Old programs CHAOS and USC by Dann Corbit, CCC, July 11, 2015

External Links

History of AI

History of Computer Chess

Murray Campbell, Edward Feigenbaum, David Levy, John McCarthy, Monty Newborn
TCEC: Superfinal Houdini vs Komodo by Stephan Oliver Platz, ChessBase News, November 23, 2017 » TCEC Season 10

Computer Chess - A Movie


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