John Clifford (Cliff ) Shaw, (1922–1991) 
was an American mathematician and pioneer in computer programming languages, artificial intelligence, and the development of on-line, interactive, time-sharing computers. He worked for the RAND Corporation, 1950-1971, where he completed his most significant work.
In the 1950s, he collaborated with the Carnegie Mellon University researchers Herbert Simon and Allen Newell on developing computer programs that attempted to simulate human decision-making. Shaw wrote the programming language known as Information Processing Language (IPL) for the Chess program NSS (and other programs) for a Johnniac computer.
- Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, Herbert Simon (1958). Chess Playing Programs and the Problem of Complexity. IBM Journal of Research and Development, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 320-335. Reprinted (1963) in Computers and Thought (eds. Edward Feigenbaum and Julian Feldman), pp. 39-70. McGraw-Hill, New York, N.Y. pdf
- Allen Newell, Cliff Shaw, Herbert Simon (1959). Report on a general problem-solving program. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Processing, pp. 256-264 
- Pamela McCorduck (2004). Machines Who Think: A Personal Inquiry into the History and Prospects of Artificial Intelligence. A. K. Peters (25th anniversary edition)