Difference between revisions of "Arthur Samuel"

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[[FILE:This is the photo of Arthur Samuel.jpg|border|right|thumb| Arthur Samuel <ref>this photo of Arthur Samuel is early edition, by Xl2085, [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Samuel Arthur Samuel from Wikipedia]</ref> ]]  
 
[[FILE:This is the photo of Arthur Samuel.jpg|border|right|thumb| Arthur Samuel <ref>this photo of Arthur Samuel is early edition, by Xl2085, [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Samuel Arthur Samuel from Wikipedia]</ref> ]]  
  
'''Arthur Lee Samuel''', (1901 - July 29, 1990 <ref>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gio_Wiederhold Gio Wiederhold], [[John McCarthy]], [[Ed Feigenbaum]] ('''1990'''). ''Memorial Resolution: Arthur L. Samuel (1901 - 1990)''. [[AAAI#AIMAG|AI Magazine]], Vol. 11, No. 3</ref>)<br/>
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'''Arthur Lee Samuel''', (1901 - July 29, 1990 <ref>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gio_Wiederhold Gio Wiederhold], [[John McCarthy]], [[Edward Feigenbaum|Ed Feigenbaum]] ('''1990'''). ''Memorial Resolution: Arthur L. Samuel (1901 - 1990)''. [[AAAI#AIMAG|AI Magazine]], Vol. 11, No. 3</ref>)<br/>
an American computer game pioneer, who developed a [[Checkers]] program in the 50s, which appeared to be the world's first [[Learning|self-learning]] program. He already implemented a variation of [[Alpha-Beta|alpha-beta pruning]], which appeared to have been reinvented a number of times by [[John McCarthy]], [[Allen Newell]] with [[Herbert Simon]], [[Alexander Brudno]] and others. Samuel's program already used [[Bitboards|bitboards]] to [[Board Representation|represent]] the checkers board state. Arthur Samuel further was pioneer in machine learning, and first used the [[Reinforcement Learning|reinforcement learning]] technique later dubbed [[Temporal Difference Learning#TDLeaf|TDLeaf(λ)]], and, a few years later, [[Supervised Learning|supervised]] [[Automated Tuning#MoveAdaption|move adaption]] to [[Automated Tuning|tune]] the evaluation of his program <ref>[[Arthur Samuel]] ('''1967'''). ''Some Studies in Machine Learning. Using the Game of Checkers. II-Recent Progress''. [http://researcher.watson.ibm.com/researcher/files/us-beygel/samuel-checkers.pdf pdf]</ref>, where a structure of stacked linear evaluation functions was trained by computing a correlation measure based on the number of times the feature rated an alternative move higher than the desired move played by an expert <ref>[[Johannes Fürnkranz]] ('''2000'''). ''Machine Learning in Games: A Survey''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austrian_Research_Institute_for_Artificial_Intelligence Austrian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence], OEFAI-TR-2000-3, [http://www.ofai.at/cgi-bin/get-tr?download=1&paper=oefai-tr-2000-31.pdf pdf]</ref>.  
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was an American computer game pioneer, who developed a [[Checkers]] program in the 50s, which appeared to be the world's first [[Learning|self-learning]] program. He already implemented a variation of [[Alpha-Beta|alpha-beta pruning]], which appeared to have been reinvented a number of times by [[John McCarthy]], [[Allen Newell]] with [[Herbert Simon]], [[Alexander Brudno]] and others. Samuel's program already used [[Bitboards|bitboards]] to [[Board Representation|represent]] the checkers board state. Arthur Samuel further was pioneer in machine learning, and first used the [[Reinforcement Learning|reinforcement learning]] technique later dubbed [[Temporal Difference Learning#TDLeaf|TDLeaf(λ)]], and, a few years later, [[Supervised Learning|supervised]] [[Automated Tuning#MoveAdaption|move adaption]] to [[Automated Tuning|tune]] the evaluation of his program <ref>[[Arthur Samuel]] ('''1967'''). ''Some Studies in Machine Learning. Using the Game of Checkers. II-Recent Progress''. [http://researcher.watson.ibm.com/researcher/files/us-beygel/samuel-checkers.pdf pdf]</ref>, where a structure of stacked linear evaluation functions was trained by computing a correlation measure based on the number of times the feature rated an alternative move higher than the desired move played by an expert <ref>[[Johannes Fürnkranz]] ('''2000'''). ''Machine Learning in Games: A Survey''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austrian_Research_Institute_for_Artificial_Intelligence Austrian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence], OEFAI-TR-2000-3, [http://www.ofai.at/cgi-bin/get-tr?download=1&paper=oefai-tr-2000-31.pdf pdf]</ref>.  
  
 
=Quotes=
 
=Quotes=
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=Selected Publications=  
 
=Selected Publications=  
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==1959==
 
* [[Arthur Samuel]] ('''1959'''). ''[http://domino.watson.ibm.com/tchjr/journalindex.nsf/600cc5649e2871db852568150060213c/39a870213169f45685256bfa00683d74!OpenDocument Some Studies in Machine Learning Using the Game of Checkers]''. IBM Journal July 1959, reprinted in [[David Levy]] (ed.) ('''1988'''). ''[http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-4613-8716-9 Computer Games I]''.  <ref>[http://www.abaa.org/books/245839575.html Some studies in machine learning using the game of checkers by Arthur Lee Samuel from Jeremy Norman's Historyofscience.com - Used Book - Paperback - First Edition]</ref> <ref>[[Norbert Wiener]] ('''1964'''). ''God & Golem, Inc''.: A Comment on Certain Points Where Cybernetics Impinges on Religion - MIT Press, Cambridge, MA - [http://luisguillermo.com/diosygolem/God_and_Golem_Inc.pdf pdf], refers Samuel's Checkers at pp. 11</ref>
 
* [[Arthur Samuel]] ('''1959'''). ''[http://domino.watson.ibm.com/tchjr/journalindex.nsf/600cc5649e2871db852568150060213c/39a870213169f45685256bfa00683d74!OpenDocument Some Studies in Machine Learning Using the Game of Checkers]''. IBM Journal July 1959, reprinted in [[David Levy]] (ed.) ('''1988'''). ''[http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-4613-8716-9 Computer Games I]''.  <ref>[http://www.abaa.org/books/245839575.html Some studies in machine learning using the game of checkers by Arthur Lee Samuel from Jeremy Norman's Historyofscience.com - Used Book - Paperback - First Edition]</ref> <ref>[[Norbert Wiener]] ('''1964'''). ''God & Golem, Inc''.: A Comment on Certain Points Where Cybernetics Impinges on Religion - MIT Press, Cambridge, MA - [http://luisguillermo.com/diosygolem/God_and_Golem_Inc.pdf pdf], refers Samuel's Checkers at pp. 11</ref>
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==1960 ...==
 
* [[Arthur Samuel]] ('''1960'''). ''[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065245808606087 Programming Computers to Play Games]''. [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/bookseries/00652458/1 Advances in Computers, Vol. 1], pp. 165-192
 
* [[Arthur Samuel]] ('''1960'''). ''[http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065245808606087 Programming Computers to Play Games]''. [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/bookseries/00652458/1 Advances in Computers, Vol. 1], pp. 165-192
 
* [[Arthur Samuel]] ('''1967'''). ''Some Studies in Machine Learning. Using the Game of Checkers. II-Recent Progress''. [http://researcher.watson.ibm.com/researcher/files/us-beygel/samuel-checkers.pdf pdf]
 
* [[Arthur Samuel]] ('''1967'''). ''Some Studies in Machine Learning. Using the Game of Checkers. II-Recent Progress''. [http://researcher.watson.ibm.com/researcher/files/us-beygel/samuel-checkers.pdf pdf]
 
* [[Hans Berliner]], [[Richard Greenblatt]], [[Jacques Pitrat]], [[Arthur Samuel]], [[David Slate]] ('''1977'''). ''Panel on Computer Game Playing''. [[Conferences#IJCAI1977|IJCAI 1977]], [http://ijcai.org/Past%20Proceedings/IJCAI-77-VOL2/PDF/087.pdf pdf]
 
* [[Hans Berliner]], [[Richard Greenblatt]], [[Jacques Pitrat]], [[Arthur Samuel]], [[David Slate]] ('''1977'''). ''Panel on Computer Game Playing''. [[Conferences#IJCAI1977|IJCAI 1977]], [http://ijcai.org/Past%20Proceedings/IJCAI-77-VOL2/PDF/087.pdf pdf]
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==1980 ....==
 
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gio_Wiederhold Gio Wiederhold], [[John McCarthy]], [[Edward Feigenbaum]] ('''1990'''). ''Memorial Resolution: Arthur L. Samuel (1901 - 1990)''. [[AAAI#AIMAG|AI Magazine]], Vol. 11, No. 3
 
* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gio_Wiederhold Gio Wiederhold], [[John McCarthy]], [[Edward Feigenbaum]] ('''1990'''). ''Memorial Resolution: Arthur L. Samuel (1901 - 1990)''. [[AAAI#AIMAG|AI Magazine]], Vol. 11, No. 3
 
* [[John McCarthy]], [[Edward Feigenbaum]] ('''1991'''). ''In Memoriam. Arthur L. Samuel: Pioneer in Machine Learning.'' [[ICGA Journal#14_1|ICCA Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1]]
 
* [[John McCarthy]], [[Edward Feigenbaum]] ('''1991'''). ''In Memoriam. Arthur L. Samuel: Pioneer in Machine Learning.'' [[ICGA Journal#14_1|ICCA Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1]]
 
* [[Jonathan Schaeffer]] ('''1997, 2009'''). ''[http://www.springer.com/computer/artificial/book/978-0-387-76575-4 One Jump Ahead] Challenging Human Supremacy in Checkers'', Springer, ISBN 0-387-94930-5, ISBN 978-0-387-76575-4, Didn't Samuel Solve That Game?
 
* [[Jonathan Schaeffer]] ('''1997, 2009'''). ''[http://www.springer.com/computer/artificial/book/978-0-387-76575-4 One Jump Ahead] Challenging Human Supremacy in Checkers'', Springer, ISBN 0-387-94930-5, ISBN 978-0-387-76575-4, Didn't Samuel Solve That Game?
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==2000 ...==
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* [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pamela_McCorduck Pamela McCorduck] ('''2004'''). ''[[Artificial Intelligence#MachinesWhoThink|Machines Who Think: A Personal Inquiry into the History and Prospects of Artificial Intelligence]]''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_K_Peters A. K. Peters] (25th anniversary edition)
  
 
=External Links=  
 
=External Links=  
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* [https://webdocs.cs.ualberta.ca/~jonathan/publications/ai_publications/samuel.pdf Samuel's Checkers Player] (pdf) from ''Reinforcement Learning'' by [[Richard Sutton]] and [[Andrew Barto]] <ref>[[Richard Sutton]], [[Andrew Barto]] ('''1998'''). ''Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIT_Press MIT Press], Cambridge, Mass. ISBN 0-2621-9398-1.</ref>
 
* [https://webdocs.cs.ualberta.ca/~jonathan/publications/ai_publications/samuel.pdf Samuel's Checkers Player] (pdf) from ''Reinforcement Learning'' by [[Richard Sutton]] and [[Andrew Barto]] <ref>[[Richard Sutton]], [[Andrew Barto]] ('''1998'''). ''Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIT_Press MIT Press], Cambridge, Mass. ISBN 0-2621-9398-1.</ref>
 
* [http://www.cs.ualberta.ca/~chinook/project/legacy.html Chinook - Arthur Samuel's Legacy]
 
* [http://www.cs.ualberta.ca/~chinook/project/legacy.html Chinook - Arthur Samuel's Legacy]
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* [https://en.chessbase.com/post/standing-on-the-shoulders-of-giants Standing on the shoulders of giants] by [[Albert Silver]], [[ChessBase|ChessBase News]], September 18, 2019
  
 
=References=  
 
=References=  
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'''[[People|Up one level]]'''
 
'''[[People|Up one level]]'''
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[[Category:Checkers Programmer|Samuel]]
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[[Category:Pioneer|Samuel]]
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[[Category:McCarthy Quotes|Samuel]]

Latest revision as of 14:48, 7 December 2019

Home * People * Arthur Samuel

Arthur Samuel [1]

Arthur Lee Samuel, (1901 - July 29, 1990 [2])
was an American computer game pioneer, who developed a Checkers program in the 50s, which appeared to be the world's first self-learning program. He already implemented a variation of alpha-beta pruning, which appeared to have been reinvented a number of times by John McCarthy, Allen Newell with Herbert Simon, Alexander Brudno and others. Samuel's program already used bitboards to represent the checkers board state. Arthur Samuel further was pioneer in machine learning, and first used the reinforcement learning technique later dubbed TDLeaf(λ), and, a few years later, supervised move adaption to tune the evaluation of his program [3], where a structure of stacked linear evaluation functions was trained by computing a correlation measure based on the number of times the feature rated an alternative move higher than the desired move played by an expert [4].

Quotes

Quote by John McCarthy from Human-Level AI is harder than it seemed in 1955 on the Dartmouth workshop:

Chess programs catch some of the human chess playing abilities but rely on the limited effective branching of the chess move tree. The ideas that work for chess are inadequate for go. Alpha-beta pruning characterizes human play, but it wasn't noticed by early chess programmers - Turing, Shannon, Pasta and Ulam, and Bernstein. We humans are not very good at identifying the heuristics we ourselves use. Approximations to alpha-beta used by Samuel, Newell and Simon, McCarthy. Proved equivalent to minimax by Hart and Levin, independently by Brudno. Knuth gives details.

See also

History of Alpha-Beta
Reinforcement Learning
Temporal Difference Learning

Selected Publications

1959

1960 ...

1980 ....

2000 ...

External Links

References

  1. this photo of Arthur Samuel is early edition, by Xl2085, Arthur Samuel from Wikipedia
  2. Gio Wiederhold, John McCarthy, Ed Feigenbaum (1990). Memorial Resolution: Arthur L. Samuel (1901 - 1990). AI Magazine, Vol. 11, No. 3
  3. Arthur Samuel (1967). Some Studies in Machine Learning. Using the Game of Checkers. II-Recent Progress. pdf
  4. Johannes Fürnkranz (2000). Machine Learning in Games: A Survey. Austrian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence, OEFAI-TR-2000-3, pdf
  5. Some studies in machine learning using the game of checkers by Arthur Lee Samuel from Jeremy Norman's Historyofscience.com - Used Book - Paperback - First Edition
  6. Norbert Wiener (1964). God & Golem, Inc.: A Comment on Certain Points Where Cybernetics Impinges on Religion - MIT Press, Cambridge, MA - pdf, refers Samuel's Checkers at pp. 11
  7. Richard Sutton, Andrew Barto (1998). Reinforcement Learning: An Introduction. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. ISBN 0-2621-9398-1.

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