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Cray X-MP

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[[FILE:3-2b.LLNL.Cray_Blitz.Nelson-Harry.19XX.L062302003.LLNL.srcl.lg.jpg|border|right|thumb|300px|link=|[[Harry Nelson]] in front of a Cray X-MP <ref>[[Harry Nelson]], co-developer of chess program [[Cray Blitz]], in front of Cray supercomputer, 1983 ca., Courtesy of [[Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory]], [[The Computer History Museum]]</ref> ]]

'''Cray X-MP''',<br/>
a [ supercomputer] designed, manufactured and marketed by [ Cray Research Inc.], announced in 1982 as successor of the [[Cray-1]]. It was the world's fastest computer from 1983 to 1985 <ref>[ Cray X-MP from Wikipedia]</ref>. Its principal designer was [ Steve Chen]. The X-MP's main improvement over the Cray-1 was a [[Memory#Shared|shared-memory]], parallel [ vector processor], housing two [ CPUs] in a mainframe that was nearly identical in outside appearance to the Cray-1. The X-MP CPU had a faster 9.5 nanosecond clock cycle (105 MHz), compared to 12.5 ns for the Cray-1. It was built from [ bipolar] [ gate array] integrated circuits containing 16 [ emitter-coupled logic gates] each, and was very similar to the Cray-1 CPU in architecture, and object-code compatible <ref> [ Cray X-MP from Wikipedia]</ref>. In 1984, improved models of the X-MP were announced, consisting of up to four-processor systems.

The '''Cray-2''' was a supercomputer with four vector processors built with emitter-coupled logic starting in 1985. It was the fastest machine in the world when it was released, replacing the Cray X-MP in that spot <ref>[ Cray-2 from Wikipedia]</ref>.
<span id="YMP"></span>
=Cray Y-MP=
X-MP successor '''Cray Y-MP''' was sold by Cray Research from 1988, retained software compatibility with the X-MP, but extended the address registers from 24 to 32 bits. The Y-MP could be equipped with two, four or eight vector processors <ref>[ Cray Y-MP from Wikipedia]</ref>.
<span id="C90"></span>
=Cray C90=
The Cray '''C90''' series (Y-MP C90) was a vector processor supercomputer launched by Cray Research in 1991. The series included the C94, C98 and C916 models with a maximum of four, eight, and 16 processors respectively <ref>[ Cray C90 from Wikipedia]</ref>.

=Chess Programs=
* [[Cray Blitz]]
* [[Lachex]]

=See also=
* [[Cray-1]]
* [[Cray T3D]]
* [[Cray T3E]]
* [[Dynamic Tree Splitting]]

* [ The Cray X-MP Series of Computer Systems] (pdf)
* [ CAL Assembly Reference Manual] (pdf)

* [ Steve S. Chen], [ Jack J. Dongarra], [ Christopher C. Hsiung] ('''1984'''). ''Multiprocessing linear algebra algorithms on the CRAY X-MP-2: Experiences with small granularity''. [ Journal of Parallel Distributed Computing], Vol. 1, No. 2, [ pdf]
* [[Harry Nelson]] ('''1984'''). ''How We Won The Computer Chess World's Championship''. Excerpt from a talk given at he DAS Computer Science Colloquium, [ pdf] from [[The Computer History Museum]] » [[WCCC 1983]]
* [[Robert Hyatt]] ('''1985'''). ''Parallel Chess on the Cray X-MP/48''. [[ICGA Journal#8_2|ICCA Journal, Vol. 8, No. 2]]
* [[Robert Hyatt]] ('''1988'''). ''A High-Performance Parallel Algorithm to Search Depth-First Game Trees''. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Computer Science, [[University of Alabama at Birmingham]]
* [ Melvin C. August], [ Gerald M. Brost], [ Christopher C. Hsiung], [ Alan J. Schiffleger] ('''1989'''). ''[ Cray X-MP: The Birth of a Supercomputer]''. [[IEEE#Computer|IEEE Computer]], Vol. 22, No. 1
* [[Robert Hyatt]], [[Bruce W. Suter]], [[Harry Nelson]] ('''1989'''). ''A Parallel Alpha-Beta Tree Searching Algorithm''. Parallel Computing, Vol. 10, No. 3.
* [[Robert Hyatt]], [[Harry Nelson]] ('''1990'''). ''[ Chess and supercomputers: details about optimizing Cray Blitz]''. [ Supercomputing '90], [ pdf]
* [[Robert Hyatt]] ('''1994'''). ''[ The DTS high-performance parallel tree search algorithm]''.» [[Dynamic Tree Splitting]]
* [[Robert Hyatt]] ('''1997'''). ''[ The Dynamic Tree-Splitting Parallel Search Algorithm]''. [[ICGA Journal#20_1|ICCA Journal, Vol. 20, No. 1]]

=Forum Posts=
* [ hardware of Cray Blitz] by [[Leonid Liberman|Leonid]], [[CCC]], June 13, 1999 » [[WCCC 1983]]
* [ Cray and supercomputers (kinda long)] by [[Joshua Shriver]], [[CCC]], September 16, 2005
* [ Cray Blitz source (Carey)] by [[Robert Hyatt]], [[CCC]], September 10, 2008

=External Links=
* [ Cray X-MP from Wikipedia]
* [ Category: Cray X-MP - Wikimedia Commons]
* [ Cray (brand) from Wikipedia]
* [ Cray, the Supercomputer Company | Cray"]
: [ Company History | Cray]
* [ Cray Super Computers - Cray XMP]
* [ CRAY X-MP/48] from [ SCD Supercomputer Gallery]
* [,Vect/cray-xmp.gif,Vect/menu-crx.html High Performance Computer Architectures: A Historical Perspective - The CRAY X-MP]
* [ Cray-2 from Wikipedia]
* [ Cray Y-MP from Wikipedia]
* [ Cray C90 from Wikipedia]

<references />

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