23,480

edits
# Changes

no edit summary

{|

|-

| style="vertical-align:top;" | Since the relationship between [[Pawn Advantage, Win Percentage, and Elo|win percentage and pawn advantage]] is assumed to follow a [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logistic_model logistic model], one may treat static evaluation as [[Neural Networks#Perceptron|single-layer perceptron]] or single [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_neuron neuron] [[Neural Networks|ANN]] with the common [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logistic_function logistic] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Activation_function activation function], performing the perceptron algorithm to train it <ref>[http://www.talkchess.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=56168&start=36 Re: Piece weights with regression analysis (in Russian)] by [[Fabien Letouzey]], [[CCC]], May 04, 2015</ref>. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logistic_regression Logistic regression] in evaluation tuning was first elaborated by [[Michael Buro]] in 1995 <ref>[[Michael Buro]] ('''1995'''). ''[http://www.jair.org/papers/paper179.html Statistical Feature Combination for the Evaluation of Game Positions]''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journal_of_Artificial_Intelligence_Research JAIR], Vol. 3</ref>, and proved successful in the game of [[Othello]] in comparison with [[Mathematician#RFisher|Fisher's]] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kernel_Fisher_discriminant_analysis linear discriminant] and quadratic [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discriminant discriminant] function for [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normal_distribution normally distributed] features, and served as eponym of his Othello program ''Logistello'' <ref>[https://skatgame.net/mburo/log.html LOGISTELLO's Homepage]</ref>. In computer chess, logistic regression was applied by [[Arkadiusz Paterek]] with [[Gosu]] <ref>[[Arkadiusz Paterek]] ('''2004'''). ''Modelowanie funkcji oceniającej w grach''. [[University of Warsaw]], [https://www.mimuw.edu.pl/~paterek/mfog.ps.gz zipped ps] (Polish, Modeling of an evaluation function in games)</ref>, later proposed by [[Miguel A. Ballicora]] in ~~a ~~2009 ~~[[CCC]] post, ~~as ~~applied to ~~used by [[Gaviota]] <ref>[http://www.talkchess.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=27266&postdays=0&postorder=asc&topic_view=&start=11 Re: Insanity... or Tal style?] by [[Miguel A. Ballicora]], [[CCC]], April 02, 2009</ref>, ~~was ~~independently described by [[Amir Ban]] in 2012 for [[Junior|Junior's]] evaluation learning <ref>[[Amir Ban]] ('''2012'''). ''[http://www.ratio.huji.ac.il/node/2362 Automatic Learning of Evaluation, with Applications to Computer Chess]''. Discussion Paper 613, [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hebrew_University_of_Jerusalem The Hebrew University of Jerusalem] - Center for the Study of Rationality, [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Givat_Ram Givat Ram]</ref>, and explicitly mentioned by [[Álvaro Begué]] in a January 2014 [[CCC]] discussion <ref>[http://www.talkchess.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=50823&start=10 Re: How Do You Automatically Tune Your Evaluation Tables] by [[Álvaro Begué]], [[CCC]], January 08, 2014</ref>, when [[Peter Österlund]] explained [[Texel's Tuning Method]] <ref>[http://www.talkchess.com/forum/viewtopic.php?topic_view=threads&p=555522&t=50823 The texel evaluation function optimization algorithm] by [[Peter Österlund]], [[CCC]], January 31, 2014</ref>, which subsequently popularized logistic regression tuning in computer chess. [[Vladimir Medvedev|Vladimir Medvedev's]] [[Point Value by Regression Analysis]] <ref>[http://habrahabr.ru/post/254753/ Определяем веса шахматных фигур регрессионным анализом / Хабрахабр] by [[Vladimir Medvedev|WinPooh]], April 27, 2015 (Russian)</ref> <ref>[http://www.talkchess.com/forum/viewtopic.php?t=56168 Piece weights with regression analysis (in Russian)] by [[Vladimir Medvedev]], [[CCC]], April 30, 2015</ref> experiments showed why the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logistic_function logistic function] is appropriate, and further used [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross_entropy cross-entropy] and [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regularization_%28mathematics%29 regularization].

| [[FILE:SigmoidTexelTune.gif|border|left|thumb|baseline|300px|link=http://wolfr.am/1al3d5B|[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logistic_function Logistic function] <ref>[http://wolfr.am/1al3d5B log-linear 1 / (1 + 10^(-s/4)) , s=-10 to 10] from [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolfram_Alpha Wolfram|Alpha]</ref> ]]

|}

* [[Arasan#Tuning|Arasan's Tuning]]

* [[Eval Tuning in Deep Thought]]

* [[Gosu]]

* [[Minimax Tree Optimization]] (MMTO or the Bonanza-Method in [[Shogi]])

* [[Point Value by Regression Analysis]]

* [[Mathieu Autonès]], [[Aryel Beck]], [[Phillippe Camacho]], [[Nicolas Lassabe]], [[Hervé Luga]], [[François Scharffe]] ('''2004'''). ''[http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-540-24650-3_1 Evaluation of Chess Position by Modular Neural network Generated by Genetic Algorithm]''. [http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/db/conf/eurogp/eurogp2004.html#AutonesBCLLS04 EuroGP 2004]

* [[Henk Mannen]], [[Marco Wiering]] ('''2004'''). ''Learning to play chess using TD(λ)-learning with database games''. [http://students.uu.nl/en/hum/cognitive-artificial-intelligence Cognitive Artiﬁcial Intelligence], [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utrecht_University Utrecht University], Benelearn’04

* [[Arkadiusz Paterek]] ('''2004'''). ''Modelowanie funkcji oceniającej w szachach''. Masters thesis, [[University of Warsaw]] (Polish, Modeling of an evaluation function in chess)

* [[Arkadiusz Paterek]] ('''2004'''). ''Modelowanie funkcji oceniającej w grach''. [[University of Warsaw]], [https://www.mimuw.edu.pl/~paterek/mfog.ps.gz zipped ps] (Polish, Modeling of an evaluation function in games)

==2005 ...==

* [[Dave Gomboc]], [[Michael Buro]], [[Tony Marsland]] ('''2005'''). ''Tuning Evaluation Functions by Maximizing Concordance''. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theoretical_Computer_Science_%28journal%29 Theoretical Computer Science], Vol. 349, No. 2, [http://www.cs.ualberta.ca/%7Emburo/ps/tcs-learn.pdf pdf]